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Bodies of Violence: Visualizing 35 Body Modifications

Originated in ancient Chinese Shang Dynosty The Emperor's concubine. Daji, made foot binding mandatory for girls so her own feet size would become the new standard of beauty Ear piercings are one of the earliest known forms of body modiciation Worn by men in ancient Persia I IN 4 CAMEROONIAN FEMALES UNDERGO BREAST IRONING Nose piercings hove a long history dating back to c.1S0OBC Worn by Lakshmi (Hindu Goddess of wealth) and spread from Mughal Emperors which influenced modern popularity in India THE IDEAL LENGTH OF FEET IS 2.5 INCHES LONG Some of the earliest forms are found in ancient Celts of the European Iron Age Worn by men to indicate wealth and status Worn by Kayan women as a custom since the age of 2 Navel piercings worm by ancient Egyptian aristocrats Nippel piercings worn by Roman soldiers as a sign of masculinity Performed by mothers on their pubescent daughters to prevent sexual harrassment & rape Practiced mostly in Cameroon where males think that girls are ready for i their breasts begin to grow Worn by Aborigines, Vietnamese tribes, Sudanese tribes, Mayans, Upoto tribe (Congo). An ancient Chinese group Ta-ya-kih-lau had all woman to be married knock out two teeth, to prevent damage to the husband's family lor sex when Elongated labia percieved to facilitate orgasms and female ejaculation Performed by women of Rwandan culture starting from puberty CRANIAL BINDING HAIR CUTTING & REMOVAL FOOT BINDING EAR PIERCING One of the earliest originated in 87008C, Sudon & Ethiopia The plate dize symbolized social or economical importance in tribes The final diameter ranging from 8 to over 20cm Worn by Aztec and Mayans as religious ritual designed to inflict pain, to honor gods FACE NECK RINGS PIERCING BREAST IRONING SURFACE PIERCING TOOTH FILING LABIA ELONGATION TONGUE The earliest breast implont was performed in 1895 by surgeon Vincenz Czemyin LIP PLATE I NOSE PLUG First developed in Netherlands in 2002 by Netherlands Institute for Innovative Ocular Surgery PIERCING / PIERCING FIGURE CUTTING / DISTORTION REMOVAL The first face-lift wos performed in 1901 Berlin by Eugen Hollander BODY IMPLANT EYEBALL JEWELRY Most known historical use is by the Yakuza of Japan as body modification and to symbolize each year in prison FACIAL RECONSTRUCTION PEARLING A REAL LIFE KEN DOLL HAS 1I SURGERIES TO LOOK LIKE THE PERFECT DOLL Bodies of Violence Performed by Mandan Native American tribe as suspension rituals Practiced by performance artists VISUALIZING Jure YOUTUBED BODY LIFT / BODY MODIFICATIONS REDUCTION SUSPENSION The oldest planned surgical procedure sold to be over 15,000 years old Earliest record worn by Egyptians believed to be associated with purity Featured prominantely in the Hebrew Bible Each modification is then scored through eight characteristics of violence: ) penetration through skin (u) synthetic input into body (i) impeding natural growth of body (v) impeding natural movements of body (v) health related consequences (vi) permanence (vii) pain (vii) consent The 35 body modifications are categorized as three types: piercing / cutting / removal, coloring / scarring, and figure distortion. CORSET CIRCUMCISION Fronce's King Henry Il's wife, Catherine de Medici enforced a ban on thick waists at court in the 55 The 2001 film Moulin Rouge costumes revived corsets CASTRATION EAR STRETCHING Roman Empire, Chinese Emperor Shun & Yu, use as punishments PENILE SUBINCISION DENTAL BRACE Originated from Indigenous tribes in Africa, Eurosia & America Worn for traditional culture & religious purposes Widespread in Indigenous Australian Basin cultures, as rite of passage rituals FEMALE GENITAL WEIGHT CUTTING COLORING / SCARRING 30x OF MALES CIRCUMCISED WORLDWIDE OF WHICH The earliest uses dote bock to 400-300BC Worn by ancient Greek philosophers Hippocrates & Aristotle 70% ARE MUSLIM SCARIFICATION TANNING eurce WHOJ BRANDING WHITENING BLEACHING Originated in Africa, dating bock to Egypr's Middle Kingdom c. 1991-17868C Egyptian custom to practice on 14 year old marriagable youths KELOID САTHIE IUNG HOLDS THE LAZER SKIN SMALLEST WEIGHT IN THE WORLD OF IS INCHES (uree Gwa CORNEAL TATTOOING TATTOO REJUVENATION Sunless (fake) tonning's populanity rose in 1960s Originated in ancient treatment of slaves or punishment markings for criminals Loser surgery wos pioneered • PENETRATION THROUGH SKIN • SYNTHETIC INPUT INTO BODY • IMPEDING NATURAL GROWTH Procticed for the last 2000 yeors, frst mentioned by Galen, a 2nd-Century physician Practiced for aesthetic reasons and also to improve eye sight 30% OF AMERICAN A EUROPEAN WOMEN (I8) USE HAIR DYES "Fashion's ideal of beauty is not the celebration of the natural, but the test of women's ability to defy it" Ere CANCERGOV • IMPEDING NATURAL MOVEMENTS • HEALTH RELATED CONSQUENCES PERMANENCE • PAIN The earliest tottoos were found on female mumies dating back to c.20008C Worn exclusively by ancient Egyptian females, one identified to be a high-status priestess named Amunet UNCONSENTED - Rebecca Arnhold, Fashion, Desire & Anatomy

Bodies of Violence: Visualizing 35 Body Modifications

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Each modification is categorized as one of three types: (1) piercing / cutting / removal (2) coloring / scarring (3) figure distortion Each modification is then scored through 8 characteristics...

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