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Bipolar Disorder

GLOBAL MEDICAL EDUCATION PRESENTS BIPOLAR DISORDER WHAT IS BIPOLAR DISORDER? Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric illness which affects MOOD, THOUGHTS, BEHAVIOR ABILITY TO FUNCTION Individuals with bipolar disorder can quickly swing from extremes of HAPPINESS, HIGH ENERGY & |% ACTIVITY LEVELS = 12,556,566 PEOPLE to SADNESS, FATIGUE & Bipolar disorder affects about 4% of the U.S. population. DESPAIR Suicide occurs in 10-15% of patients with the disorder. MEN & WOMEN ONSET MOST PATIENTS are misdiagnosed initially. It can take up to TEN YEARS are equally likely to be affected. usually Occurs in the 20's. to get a correct diagnosis. WHEN WAS BIPOLAR DISORDER FIRST DESCRIBED? The ancient Greek Bipolar disorder as we know it has been physician and philosopher Aretaeus of Cappadocia wrote about a group of his patients who had extreme mood variants one day to the next. described in clinical medicine for more than 5000 YEARS The terms In the 1900s German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin studied the disorder and coined "manic-depressive illness" and "bipolar disorder" are comparatively recent, and date back to the the term "manic-depressive insanity" to describe it. 1950s and 1980's (DSM III) respectively. HOW IS A PERSON DIAGNOSED WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER? The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is based on a careful longitudinal history from the patient and ideally from family members since many patients will deny manic or hypomanic episodes, considering them to be periods of optimal functioning. A thorough mental status and physical exam is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, and to rule out secondary causes (medical illnesses, medications, drugs etc.) of the mood symptoms particularly in patients presenting with symptoms for the first time after the age of 40. Laboratory tests are usually normal and in a few instances neuroimaging tests may be necessary. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THE EUALUATION, A PERSON MAY BE DIAGNOSED WITH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES OF BIPOLAR DISORDER: BIPOLAR I DISORDER BIPOLAR II DISORDER CYCLOTHYMIC DISORDER Presence of one or more manic or mixed (a mixture of manic and depressive symptoms in the same episode) episodes. Individuals will almost Presence of one or more major depressive episodes accompanied by at least one hypomanic episode. Presence of numerous hypomanic episodes and episodes of depression but never a full manic episode, major depressive episode or a mixed episode. For a diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder, symptoms have to last two years or more (one year in children and adolescents). During that time, symptoms can never be absent for more than two months. always have one or more major depressive episodes. Suicide rates are higher in Bipolar || compared to Bipolar I. Mixed 80% episodes are the most common The estimated heritability of liability to bipolar disorder is approx. 80% subtype of bipolar disorder. WHAT ARE THE MAIN CHANGES IN DSM 5 FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER? Increased activity/energy added as core mood elevation symptom The "with mixed features" and "with anxious distress" specifiers added for manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes Manic episode with mixed features replaces mixed episode Antidepressant induced mania/hypomania persisting beyond the physiological event sufficient for manic/hypomanic episode The "level of concern for suicide" specifier added $151 BILLION Bipolar disorder cost the US $151B in 2009. Two out of three bipolar patients has a comorbid psychiatric illness. Winter entails more depression and summer more mania. Bipolar disorder may lead to cognitive difficulties with multiple episodes. Post-partum depression is often undiagnosed bipolar disorder. HOW DO DOCTORS TREAT BIPOLAR DISORDER? INITIAL TREATMENT HOSPITALIZATION Patients who have psychotic symptoms, are suicidal or homicidal or have severe Most patients will receive either a mood stabilizer like CONTINUED TREATMENT Maintenance treatment is lithium or valproate or an atypical antipsychotic often in combination with each other. Some patients will benefit from adjunctive benzodiazepines or hypnotics initially. used to manage bipolar disorder on a long-term basis. Usually the dose and the combination of illness may need to be hospitalized for stabilization. medications that gets you better keeps you better and should be continued for About 10-15% of bipolar patients will have maintenance purposes. Non adherence is extremely Lithium possesses anti-suicide effects. antidepressant common and can lead to induced mania. relapse and hospitalization. SUBSTANCE ABUSE RIGHT MEDICATION TREATMENT Finding the right medication or medications THERAPY Comorbid substance abuse is very common in bipolar patients and can lead to non-response, relapse and difficulty achieving remission. for patients can sometimes Psychosocial treatments have an take time and both clinicians and patients need to appreciate that. Otherwise it may lead to unnecessary changes in medications that may be premature. The choice of medications is very individualized based on the evidence base, past important role in bipolar disorder. Proven therapies include CBT, family focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy and group psychoeducation. These are as an Among all newer antidepressants, venlafaxine is the response or non-response and the side effect profile of the medications. adjunct to medications not as a substitute. most likely to induce mania in bipolar patients. CAN SOMEONE WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER There are several successful people who have had STILL LEAD A SUCCESSFUL LIFE? bipolar disorder. Russell Brand Isaac Newton Catherine Zeta-Jones Winston Churchill Beethoven Frank Sinatra Marilyn Monroe Vincent van Gogh REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE POSTES 30 Mel Gibson VAN GOGH 1853 1890 THIS INFOGRAPHIC WAS BROUGHT TO YOU BY GLOBAL MEDICAL EDUCATION For more information on bipolar disorder from the world's leading experts visit: Use discount code gmebipolar for free access. SOURCES: http://disabledlives.blogspot.comv/2011/01/isaac-newton-1643-1727.html StampGirk/, 20307117 3,00.html bipolar disorder bipolar_disorder GME CME

Bipolar Disorder

shared by jasonwalker on Jun 03
An info graphic describing the details surrounding the illness known a Bipolar illness.


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