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20 Materials We Realized Far Too Late Were Hazardous

20 Materials Were Hazardous we realized far too late Glyphosate (Roundup) Monsanto What happened The weed killer may have led to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in many people, including one couple, Alva and Alberta Pilliod, who sued for a massive sum in 2019. Since 1974, 1.6 billion kilograms of Roundup's active in- gredient, glyphosate, have been applied in the U.S. It's considered to be the most widely used weed killer in the world. Settlement amount Year $2 billion 2019 Asbestos Owens Corning Corp. What happened The fibrous building material caused malignant mesothelioma, a cancer that develops from a thin layer of tissue covering the internal organs. More than 175,000 individuals were involved in the 1998 liability case. Settlement amount Year In 1973, consumers used a record high of 803,000 tons of asbestos in the U.S $1.2 billion 1998 Silicone Breast Implants Dow Corning What happened The implants had high rupture and gel bleed rates, resulting in everything from autoimmune diseases like lupus to death. More than 170,000 women sued because of illnesses due to their implants. More than 1.5 million Americans currently have silicone breast implants, but before the 1990s, the FDA did not regulate the synthetic gels used. Settlement amount Year $3.2 billion 1998 Richardson-Merrell Pharmaceuticals Co. Thalidomide THALOMID What happened тM More than 10,000 |(thalidomide) children in 46 countries were born with WARNING SEVERE, UrE HREATENING HUMAN BIRTH DEFECTS F THALIDOMIDE IS TAKEN DURING PRECNANC IT CAN CALUSE SEVERE IRTH DEFECTS OR DEATH TO AN UNBORN BARY THALIDOMDE SHOULD NEVER DE USED PREGNANT OR WHO COUAD DECOM WOMEN WHO ARE DRUG E DISPENSE INTACT THUS NOT DISPE NOr BE REPACKAGED Do COUNSELEDE UNLESS PATIENT HAS BEEN DEFICIS ASSOca k OF BIRTH AND A SIGNED INFORAE THIS DRUG HAS BEEN PRESENTED CONSENT FORM A FOR PRESCRIPTION LABEL deformities, usSually of the limbs, as a result of teratogenesis from thalidomide use. There THE ORUG VEN A SINCLE DOSE CAPSULE CO TAKEN BY A PRECNANE WOMAN CAN CANUS SERE RTH DEPECTS is a high risk of severe, life-threatening defects. Photo by Otis Historical Archives (Flickr) Photo by Stephencdickson (Wikimedia) U.S. FDA reviewer This drug, which is still used to treat cancers and leprosy, was initially promoted for people with anxiety and "tension." Pregnant women were prescribed the drug for morning sickness. Frances Oldham Kelsey was given a presidential award for blocking the sale of the drug. Settlement amount Year $120 million 1984 Sherwin-Williams, ConAgra Grocery Products Co., NL Industries Lead-Based Paint HAS YOUR CHILD HAD A еAD Tет ет? What happened It's been estimated that somewhere between 500,000 and 1.2 million children have lead poisoning in the U.S., a Citch Boy WHITE LEAD condition that results in headaches, behavioral issues, exhaustion, weight loss, seizures, and sometimes death. Dr. Herbert Needleman, who was attacked and accused of fraud by corporate interests, was one of the leaders who documented the effects of lead poisoning in children. Photo by Thester11 (Wikimedia) Despite the fact that lead-based paints have been banned for residential use since 1978, the CDC estimates that 24 million housing units still have significant lead-based paint hazards. Settlement amount Year $305 million 2019 Wyeth What happened Fen-Phen HOT NEW DIET PILL The drugs potentially caused fatal pulmonary hypertension, heart valve problems, and death. Approximately 1 in 3 people exposed to fen-phen showed signs of heart issues. Photo by Time Inc. Marketed as “the hot new diet pill," the fenfluramine/phentermine drug combination and its SUccessor, Redux (dexfenfluramine)/phentermine, were meant to be used for anti-obesity treatments. Settlement amount Year $21.1 billion 2005 Tobacco Philip Morris Inc., R.J. Reynolds, Brown & Williamson, Lorillard What happened lloggs SPECIAL REPORT Hong Kong The Future of China According to the CDC, cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor TINE ASTHMA CIGARETTES for lung cancer. The industry advertised to children, deceived con- sumers, paid scientists to debunk BIG TOBACCO TAKES A HIT CONTAINS 20 CIGARETTES But will the deal stick, and are the cigarette giants getting off easy? peer-reviewed studies, and perpetuated freedom of choice as an appealing marketing strategy. Photo by Time Inc. Vigronte Ca Eventually, these companies were held accountable in the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement. In 1965, 42.4% of adults smoked cigarettes in the US. According to the WHO, as of now, there are still 1.1 billion smokers in the world. About 80% of them live Settlement amount Year $246 billion (over 25 years) 1998 in low- and middle-income countries. Monsanto, Ciba, Montrose Chemical Company, Velsicol Chemical Corporation, and more What happened DDT hat we haye to fsce is not Dichloro-diphenyl-trichlo- which ic s to somea roethane was found to SILENT SPRING Rachel Carson accumulate in fatty tis- sues of predators and per- sist in the environment. It's classified as a probable human Photo by Frank Herbbert (Flickr) carcinogen. Famously, the activist Rachel Carson published a book, "Silent Spring", which revealed how the eggs of the national bird, the bald eagle, were being negatively affected by DDT. Prior to its banning, the very popular insecticide was used for 30 years; approximately 1.35 billion pounds were used domestically. Settlement amount Year $73 million 2000 Rofecoxib (Vioxх/Сeoxx) Merck & Co. What happened A standard dose of these NSAIDS can increase the taker's risk of heart attack and stroke, with rising risk as one increases the dose or the duration of Complimentary . ONCE DAILY 2 Tablets • No. 3810 taking the drug. VIOXX 12.5mg (rofecoxib tablets) Vioxx is estimated to have killed nearly 60,000 9505500 patients. More than 84 million people were prescribed Vioxx, an anti-inflammatory NSAID, to treat arthritis, migraine, menstrual pain, and acute pain. Settlement amount Year $4.85 billion 2007 Arsenic John Todd Merrick & Company and many others What happened It's not known how many people died from breathing in arsenic. Many people fell ill, fainted, experienced agonizing digestive pains, and died during the Victorian era, with the only seeming relief to be to go on holiday. Vivid wallpaper was especially popular during the Victorian period, and chemist Carl Sheele created "Scheele's Green," a bright hue made with One of the most famous designers, William Morris, claimed that “doctors were bitten as people were bitten by the witch fever," basically chalking it up to hysteria. arsenic. There was a 2,615% increase in the production of wallpaper from 1834 to 1874, much of which contained this emerald green color. United States Radium Corporation What happened Radium These "radium girls" experienced gruesome effects, such as anemia, bone fractures, necrosis of the jaw, and death. Some of the victims were sO contaminated that the radiation can be detected with a Geiger counter above their graves. Between 1917 and 1926, an estimated 4,000 workers were told that the luminous paint they were using to paint watch dials was harmless, as they frequently licked their camel-hair brushes to form a fine point. Settlement amount Year $10,000 per 1928 worker Talcum Powder Johnson & Johnson What happened While testing and research is not yet definitive on whether or not it is linked to ovarian cancer and lung cancer, the European Union has banned talc in health products, and the CDC and FDA have been continuously studying its effects. Photo by Mattman724 (Wikimedia) Settlement amount Year Talcum powder remains a hugely popular product in the U.S. $4.69 billion 2018 Dicamba Monsanto What happened This herbicide can lead to “dicamba drift," in which the substance vaporizes from treated fields and spreads to neighboring fields, affecting other crops. Toxicity factors have been and are being researched. Settlement amount Year The broad-spectrum herbicide has been included in Vanquish, Oracle, Diablo, Dianat, and Banvel. $265 million 2020 PCBS Monsanto Co., GE, Solutia Inc. What happened According to the EPA, PCBS are a potential carcinogen in humans. They also cause skin conditions in adults and neuro-behavioral and immunological changes in children. PCBS have had a horrible effect on wildlife of the Photo by Sturmovik (Wikimedia) Hudson River in New York. An estimated 1.1 billion pounds of polychlorinated biphenyls were produced between 1929 and 1977 in the U.S., typically for use as a coolant. Settlement amount $700 million Year 2013 Atrazine Syngenta What happened While the EPA has asserted that Atrazine is not linked to cancer in humans, some studies found it to be an endocrine disruptor, which can affect children's health, sexual development, pregnancy, and the immune system. Scientist Tyrone Hayes was pursued by the company after asserting that the chemical might be harmful to amphibians. This herbicide for corn, sugarcane, and turf is consid- ered to be the second most widely used herbicide in the U.S. It's one of the most common contaminants Photo by Earl Neikirk (Wikimedia) Settlement amount Year of drinking water. $105 million 2012 Dow Chemical Company, Monsanto Company, Diamond Shamrock Corporation, and more What happened Agent Orange Besides massive environmental damage including destroyed forests and harmed species diversity, Vietnamese and U.S. veterans experienced increased cases of leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, spina bifida, and cancers. Up to 4 million people were exposed to this defoliant chemical, which was one of the "rainbow herbicides" used during the Vietnam War between 1962 and 1975. Settlement amount Year $180 million 1984 Coca-Cola, many others What happened This substance is highly addictive, with potentially life-threatening effects. Cocaine COCAINE TOOTHACHE DROPS Two laws, the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914, began to prohibit the use of cocaine in the U.S. Instantaneous Cure! In the Victorian era, cocaine was considered a wonder drug, appearing in cigarettes, popular drinks like the 1886 recipe for Coca-Cola, and medicines like Ryno's Hay Fever and Catarrh Remedy. Mercury What happened Mercury is extremely toxic, and effects on the brain, kidneys, and lungs can result in memory loss, muscle weakness, mood swings, and several diseases, such as Minamata disease. 1236 ONE POUND CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE * U.S.P. XII POWDERED (MERCURY BICHLORIDE) Active Ingredient not less Mercury and drugs containing mercury were once popular treatments for syphilis, constipation, depression, toothaches, and the pain of childbirth. Calor Today, mercury poisoning results from consuming concentrated mercury in fish and shellfish. Photo by Wellcome Images (Wikimedia) PFOA DuPont, 3M Company, Arkema, Asahi, Clariant, and more What happened A carcinogen that accumulates in the body for long periods of time, PFOA can also affect the immune system, endocrine system, liver, and reproductive HELPFUL HINTS: fyii GSythe system. Photo by Howcheng (Wikimedia) Internal documents at major companies like 3M have revealed they had an active role in suppressing damaging information about PFOA. About 99.7% of Americans have detectable perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in their blood serum, with an average of 4 parts per billion. It's a very common industrial surfactant used in feedstock, food packaging, textiles, sealants, upholstery, drinking water, Teflon products, and more. Settlement amount Year $670.7 million 2017 Oxycodone (OxyContin) Purdue Pharma What happened OC Using an aggressive marketing campaign, which in- volved conference attendance, call lists of approxi- mately 44,500 physicians, coupons, and claims that the risk of addiction was “less than one percent," Purdue Pharma's sales escalated from $48 million in 1996 to $1.1 billion in 2000. From 1999 to 2017, nearly 218,000 Americans have died from prescription opioid overdoses, according to the CDC. In 2017, the HHS declared the U.S. opioid epidemic a public health emergency. Oxycodone has more than 15 million prescriptions. As of 2017, more than 17% of Americans had at least one opioid prescription filled, with an average of 3.1 prescriptions per patient. Settlement amount Year $10 billion+ TBD Sources: https://www.epa.gov https://www.nytimes.com/ https://www.cdc.gov/ https://www.npr.org/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ https://www.who.int https://www.theguardian.com https://pubs.usgs.gov/ https://www.washingtonpost.com https://www.asbestos.com/mesothelioma/ https://www.reuters.com/ https://kidshealth.org/ https://www.vox.com/ https://permanent.access.gpo.gov/ https://medlineplus.gov/ https://www.pbs.org/ https://www.fda.gov/ https://www.independent.co.uk https://www.latimes.com/ https://usrtk.org/monsanto-roundup-tri- al-tracker-index/ https://www.vogue.com/ https://www.buzzfeed.com/ https://www.commondreams.org/ http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/ https://www.acsh.org/ https://www.newyorker.com/ https://www.publichealth.va.gov/ https://www.history.com/ https://theintercept.com/ https://www.freep.com/ https://clincalc.com/ https://www.hhs.gov/ https://www.asbestos.com/mesothelioma/ https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/ https://beckerlaw.com/ https://www.cnbc.com/ https://www.scientificamerican.com/ https://www.forbes.com/ https://www.smithsonianmag.com/ PW Parker | Waichman LLP A NATIONAL LAW FIRM

20 Materials We Realized Far Too Late Were Hazardous

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Many substances we have historically used have turned out to be harmful to health and the environment This infographic explores the tumultuous history of 20 hazardous materials and the consequences an...

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