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VOLCANOES 79 AD ----------- MOUNT VESUVIUS, Italy Mt. Vesuvius has erupted more than 50 times in the past 2,000 years. It was in 79 AD that Vesuvius erupted and buried Pompeii. Another eruption in 1631 also killed 4,000 people. 1600 >> your guide to the composition, formation and history of volcanoes One of the most well-known volcanoes is Mount Vesuvius, famous for killing 4,000 people and burying the city of Pompeii in 79 AD. However, volcanoes exist all over the world and have been erupting for millions of years. In fact one of the most destructive eruptions was the eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia in 1815, which killed 92,000 people. Volcanoes are an unpredictable fact of nature. 1669 ---- MOUNT ETNA, Italy Mt. Etna killed 20,000 people as it enveloped Catania in Sicily. 1700 ASH CLOUD 1783 ------- ---------. >> PYROCLASTIC FLOW - a cloud of burning ash and volcanic material that can travel downslope MOUNT SKAPTAR, Iceland The eruption of Mt. Skaptar devastated Iceland, creating famine that killed a fifth of the population. >> MAGMA - molten rock under the ground >> LAVA - molten rock on the surface 1815 CRATER ------------ MOUNT TAMBORA, Indonesia 1800 ------- a large opening at the top of the volcano through which gases, lava and ash escape 12,000 people died due to the ! whirlwinds and tsunamis created by the eruption. SECONDARY CRATER ---------------- 1883 a smaller, secondary crater that may form if a secondary vent is filled with magma MOUNT KRAKATOA, Indonesia The eruption, which killed 36,000 people, was heard 3,000 miles away. Dust from the eruption caused the moon to appear bluish green for the next two years. SECONDARY VENT --------------- if the main vent becomes blocked, a secondary vent may bring magma to an additional crater 1902 -------- MOUNT PELEE, Martinique i 1900 The gas and ash from Mount Pelee's eruption killed all but four residents of the town of Saint-Pierre 1980 MOUNT ST. HELENS, United States MAIN VENT The eruption killed only 57 people but -------- the pipe that takes magma towards the main crater caused a midday darkness up to 85 miles away. MAGMA CHAMBER 1991 ------------------ an underground chamber that stores molten rock ------------ MOUNT MOUNT PINATUBO, Philippines The eruption killed 750 people and spread ash more than 6 feet deep' in a two-mile radius. The sulfuric acid in the atmosphere cooled the Earth by an entire degree Fahrenheit. 2000 - UNDERSTANDING VOLCANOES WORLD'S MOST ACTIVE VOLCANOES Because magma is less dense than rock, it will rise to the surface of the earth, creating an eruption. The movement of the earth's tectonic plates against each other creates melting, which forms magma beneath the surface. MT. ETNA (Italy) has been erupting continuously for 3,500 years. There are three ways volcanoes are formed: MT YASUR (Vanhatu) has beek :erupting continuousty : for 800 years. 1. CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES 2. DIVERGENT BOUNDARIES 3. HOTSPOTS ---- MT. STROMBOLI (Jtaly- has been erupting continuously for 2,000 years. where two tectonic where two tectonic where magma beneath earth's surface comes to the surface plates come together plates move apart SOURCE: PBS, LIVESCIENCE.ORG AND THINKQUEST.ORG BY KRISTEN LONG


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Your guide to the composition, formation and history of volcanoes. This graphic, which focuses on volcanoes, was created for class.


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