Click me
Transcribed

The shaky isles: Canterbury & other quakes

Manatū Taonga Ministry for Culture & Heritage Perspectives Perspectives is a series of infographics and visualisations designed to present information on New Zealand topics in new ways. goo.gl/WYA5W The shaky isles: Canterbury & other quakes On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand. Officially it was one of more than 10,000 aftershocks of the less destructive magnitude 7.1 earthquake that struck on 4 September 2010. 6.0 aftershock 23 December 2011 CHRISTCHURCH 7.1 earthquake Darfield. 4 September 2010 Greendale Fault 6.3 aftershock 22 February 2011 Magnitude 6.4 aftershock 13 June 2011 Over 6 • 5.0-6.0 • 4.0-5.0 • 3.5-4.0 • 3.0-3.5 I felt the aftershocks were like a home invasion - you close your curtains and you lock your door when you go to bed at night and they enter into your house without an invite? -Louise Swatton 2.5-3.0 0-2.5 QuakeStories.govt.nz/362/story/ SOURCE: GEONET MURCHISON 1929 7.8 5 Since Christchurch was settled in 1850 it has been shaken by earthquakes from across the Canterbury region. Earthquake magnitude Ground shaking intensity felt in CHRISTCHURCH Magnitude scale Modified Mercalli scale HOPE FAULT 1888 7 5-6 CHEVIOT 1901 6.9 6 7.1 6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 6.7 3-6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1994 MOTUNAU 1922 6.4 6-7 6 CASTLE HILL 1881 CHRISTCHURCH 1869 5 7-8 5.5 6-7 LAKE ELLESMERE 1870 Across New Zealand earthquakes have disrupted towns and cities, and caused injury and death. 6.9 6 EDGECUMBE 1987 Ground shaking intensity felt near epicentre FATALITIES: NONE Earthquake magnitude 7.8 10 HAWKE'S BAY 1931 7.8 9 7.5 9. FATALITIES: 258 MURCHISON 1929 MARLBOROUGH 1848 FATALITIES: 17 FATALITIES: 3 7.2 8 WAIRARAPA 1942 7.1 10 FATALITIES: 1 ÎNANGAHUA 1968 FATALITIES: 2 8.2 10 WAIRARAPA 1855 FATALITIES: 5-9 7.1 8 8.2 10 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 FATALITIES: NONE HOPE FAULT 1888 FATALITIES: NONE Magnitude scale 7.1 9 6.3 9 Modified Mercalli DARFIELD 2010 CHRISTCHURCH 2011 FATALITIES: NONE FATALITIES: 185 For centuries before Europeans arrived, Māori had experienced rū whenua, which means 'the shaking of the land'. They described two severe earthquakes, at Taupõ and Rotorua. It was said that a Rotorua pā where about 1,000 people lived was swallowed up, and the area became a lake. Why does New Zealand have so many earthquakes? Earth's main features - its continents and ocean floors - are not fixed. The earth's surface is divided AUSTRALIAN PLATE into about 15 major segments, known as plates. Most earthquakes in the world happen where two plates meet. New Zealand sits where the Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate meet. Along plates there are many faults in the earth's crust. When stress builds up in the crust, it can eventually cause the crust to break suddenly along a fault. This movement releases energy, and is felt on the surface as an earthquake. PACIFIC PLATE BOUNDARY PLATE SOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Faults Shallow earthquake CONTINENTAL CRUST OCEANIC CRUST AUSTRALIAN PLATE PLATE Deep earthquake O PACIFIC The Pacific Plate moves steadly at a rate of 4-5 cm per year. Earthquake risk SSOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Less than 2,000 years between surface ruptures Active faults SOURCE: GNS SCIENCE More than 2,000 years between surface ruptures RISK OF EARTHQUAKES LESS SEVERE > MORE SEVERE ALPINE FAULT GREENDALE FAULT These predictions are based on the distribution of active faults, how frequently faults have moved in the past, and the location of historic earthquakes. The 2010-11 Canterbury earthquakes are outside the areas of greatest statistical risk of high ground shaking. This shows that large earthquakes may occur anywhere in the New Zealand region, not just in the highest risk areas. How are earthquakes measured? The magnitude scale measures the size of an earthquake at its focus. Epicentre Surface rupture Depth Fault FOCUS An earthquake generates two different waves. The P-wave (primary or pressure wave) is a pulse of energy that travels quickly through the earth and through liquids. It forces the ground to move backwards and forwards as it is compressed and expanded. COMPRESSION COMPRESSION The S-wave (secondary or shear wave) follows more slowly, with a swaying, rolling motion that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave. The waves are recorded on a seismograph... Primary Secondary waves waves AMPLITUDE 23 mm ...and then measured: Amount of shaking (in millimetres). S-P TIME 24 sec Time (in seconds) between the primary (P) and secondary (S) waves. Seismologists study the way waves travel through the planet to better understand the earth's interior. 50 100 40 - - 50 23 /20 30 24 E 10 Where the two values intersect, you find the measurement on the magnitude scale. 20 It takes around 20 minutes for the seismic waves to travel through to the other side of the planet. 10 - F1 F0.5 F0.2 AMPLITUDE (mm) S-waves cannot be detected opposite the earthquake as they do not pass through the liquid core. MAGNITUDE S-P (sec) 8 A single step in the magnitude scale represents an increase of about 30 times the energy released at the source deep the ear magnitude 5 earthquake is therefore about 900 times bigger than a magnitude 3 earthquake. 5. THE RICHTER SCALE The Richter magnitude was based on the largest amplitude 'wiggle' recorded on a seismograph. It worked well, but magnitudes of very large earthquakes were underestimated. Today, with better instruments, scientists can measure the energy of the different types of earthquake waves. The size of earthquakes is referred to as magnitude, but it is no longer measured on the Richter scale. Unlike the magnitude scale, which measures the size of an earthquake at its focus - the source deep below the surface, the modified Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking felt by people on the ground. From observations gathered after an earthquake, it is possible to draw lines of intensity that radiate outwards from the epicentre. 10 Widespread damage to buildings; many collapse or are partly destroyed; landsliding very widespread in steep terrain; severe liquefaction in soft ground. 1931 HAWKE'S BAY EARTHQUAKE 9 Many buildings damaged and some collapse; unsecured houses move off foundations; brick veneers collapse; widespread cracking and landsliding. MAGNITUDE 7.8 Alarm may approach panic; cars hard to steer; some buildings damaged, and weaker ones may collapse; small to moderate landslides; water generally disturbed. General alarm; difficulty standing; car drivers may stop; unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked, and some buildings damaged; unrestrained water cylinders may move and burst; small rockfalls and landslides. 6 Felt by all; people and animals alarmed; difficulty in walking steadily; objects fall from shelves; unstable furniture tipped over; slight damage to some masonry buildings and weak chimneys damaged. -Napier 10 5 Generally felt indoors and outside; most sleepers wakened and a few people alarmed; small objects displaced and broken; a few windows cracked. 4 Generally noticed indoors as a jolt, or similar to vibration from heavy traffic; glassware and crockery rattle; liquids slightly disturbed; buildings may creak. Felt indoors as similar to vibration from a 3 passing truck; may not be recognised as an earthquake. 2 Slight shaking, normally felt only by people at rest or on upper floors. Recent history has not been representative of New Zealand's actual earthquake risk. Up until 22 February 2011 there had not been an earthquake close enough to a major city to cause widespread damage and loss of life since Hawke's Bay in 1931. It is highly unlikely that it will be another 80 years before the next destructive earthquake occurs. For everything you need to get ready www.GetThru.govt.nz FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS COVERED IN THIS INFOGRAPHIC VISIT LICENSED UNDER THE CREATIVE COMMONS ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL goo.gl/WYA5W FOR COMMERCIAL USE, PLEASE CONTACT US INFO@MCH.GOVT.NZ Information, diagrams and data from: Submit your stories and photos of the Canterbury quakes to: I TeAra.govt.nz ARA The Encyclopedia of New Zealand QuakeStories.govt.nz NZ NZHistory.net.nz HISTORY Manatū Taonga Ministry for Culture & Heritage Perspectives Perspectives is a series of infographics and visualisations designed to present information on New Zealand topics in new ways. goo.gl/WYA5W The shaky isles: Canterbury & other quakes On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand. Officially it was one of more than 10,000 aftershocks of the less destructive magnitude 7.1 earthquake that struck on 4 September 2010. 6.0 aftershock 23 December 2011 CHRISTCHURCH 7.1 earthquake Darfield. 4 September 2010 Greendale Fault 6.3 aftershock 22 February 2011 Magnitude 6.4 aftershock 13 June 2011 Over 6 • 5.0-6.0 • 4.0-5.0 • 3.5-4.0 • 3.0-3.5 I felt the aftershocks were like a home invasion - you close your curtains and you lock your door when you go to bed at night and they enter into your house without an invite? -Louise Swatton 2.5-3.0 0-2.5 QuakeStories.govt.nz/362/story/ SOURCE: GEONET MURCHISON 1929 7.8 5 Since Christchurch was settled in 1850 it has been shaken by earthquakes from across the Canterbury region. Earthquake magnitude Ground shaking intensity felt in CHRISTCHURCH Magnitude scale Modified Mercalli scale HOPE FAULT 1888 7 5-6 CHEVIOT 1901 6.9 6 7.1 6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 6.7 3-6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1994 MOTUNAU 1922 6.4 6-7 7 6 CASTLE HILL 1881 CHRISTCHURCH 1869 5 7-8 5.5 6-7 LAKE ELLESMERE 1870 Across New Zealand earthquakes have disrupted towns and cities, and caused injury and death. 6.9 6 EDGECUMBE 1987 Ground shaking intensity felt near epicentre FATALITIES: NONE Earthquake magnitude 7.8 10 HAWKE'S BAY 1931 7.8 9 7.5 9. FATALITIES: 258 MURCHISON 1929 MARLBOROUGH 1848 FATALITIES: 17 FATALITIES: 3 7.2 8 WAIRARAPA 1942 7.1 10 FATALITIES: 1 ÎNANGAHUA 1968 FATALITIES: 2 8.2 10 WAIRARAPA 1855 FATALITIES: 5-9 7.1 8 8.2 10 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 FATALITIES: NONE HOPE FAULT 1888 FATALITIES: NONE Magnitude scale 7.1 9 6.3 9 Modified Mercalli DARFIELD 2010 CHRISTCHURCH 2011 FATALITIES: NONE FATALITIES: 185 For centuries before Europeans arrived, Māori had experienced rū whenua, which means 'the shaking of the land'. They described two severe earthquakes, at Taupõ and Rotorua. It was said that a Rotorua pā where about 1,000 people lived was swallowed up, and the area became a lake. Why does New Zealand have so many earthquakes? Earth's main features - its continents and ocean floors - are not fixed. The earth's surface is divided AUSTRALIAN PLATE into about 15 major segments, known as plates. Most earthquakes in the world happen where two plates meet. New Zealand sits where the Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate meet. Along plates there are many faults in the earth's crust. When stress builds up in the crust, it can eventually cause the crust to break suddenly along a fault. This movement releases energy, and is felt on the surface as an earthquake. PACIFIC PLATE BOUNDARY PLATE SOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Faults Shallow earthquake CONTINENTAL CRUST OCEANIC CRUST AUSTRALIAN PLATE PLATE Deep earthquake O PACIFIC The Pacific Plate moves steadly at a rate of 4-5 cm per year. Earthquake risk SSOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Less than 2,000 years between surface ruptures Active faults SOURCE: GNS SCIENCE More than 2,000 years between surface ruptures RISK OF EARTHQUAKES LESS SEVERE > MORE SEVERE ALPINE FAULT GREENDALE FAULT These predictions are based on the distribution of active faults, how frequently faults have moved in the past, and the location of historic earthquakes. The 2010-11 Canterbury earthquakes are outside the areas of greatest statistical risk of high ground shaking. This shows that large earthquakes may occur anywhere in the New Zealand region, not just in the highest risk areas. How are earthquakes measured? The magnitude scale measures the size of an earthquake at its focus. Epicentre Surface rupture Depth Fault FOCUS An earthquake generates two different waves. The P-wave (primary or pressure wave) is a pulse of energy that travels quickly through the earth and through liquids. It forces the ground to move backwards and forwards as it is compressed and expanded. COMPRESSION COMPRESSION The S-wave (secondary or shear wave) follows more slowly, with a swaying, rolling motion that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave. The waves are recorded on a seismograph... Primary Secondary waves waves AMPLITUDE 23 mm ...and then measured: Amount of shaking (in millimetres). S-P TIME 24 sec Time (in seconds) between the primary (P) and secondary (S) waves. Seismologists study the way waves travel through the planet to better understand the earth's interior. 50 100 40 - - 50 23 /20 30 24 E 10 Where the two values intersect, you find the measurement on the magnitude scale. 20 It takes around 20 minutes for the seismic waves to travel through to the other side of the planet. 10 - 6- F1 4 F0.5 F0.2 AMPLITUDE (mm) S-waves cannot be detected opposite the earthquake as they do not pass through the liquid core. MAGNITUDE S-P (sec) 8 A single step in the magnitude scale represents an increase of about 30 times the energy released at the source deep the ear magnitude 5 earthquake is therefore about 900 times bigger than a magnitude 3 earthquake. 5. THE RICHTER SCALE The Richter magnitude was based on the largest amplitude 'wiggle' recorded on a seismograph. It worked well, but magnitudes of very large earthquakes were underestimated. Today, with better instruments, scientists can measure the energy of the different types of earthquake waves. The size of earthquakes is referred to as magnitude, but it is no longer measured on the Richter scale. Unlike the magnitude scale, which measures the size of an earthquake at its focus - the source deep below the surface, the modified Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking felt by people on the ground. From observations gathered after an earthquake, it is possible to draw lines of intensity that radiate outwards from the epicentre. 10 Widespread damage to buildings; many collapse or are partly destroyed; landsliding very widespread in steep terrain; severe liquefaction in soft ground. 1931 HAWKE'S BAY EARTHQUAKE 9 Many buildings damaged and some collapse; unsecured houses move off foundations; brick veneers collapse; widespread cracking and landsliding. MAGNITUDE 7.8 8 Alarm may approach panic; cars hard to steer; some buildings damaged, and weaker ones may collapse; small to moderate landslides; water generally disturbed. 7 General alarm; difficulty standing; car drivers may stop; unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked, and some buildings damaged; unrestrained water cylinders may move and burst; small rockfalls and landslides. 6 Felt by all; people and animals alarmed; difficulty in walking steadily; objects fall from shelves; unstable furniture tipped over; slight damage to some masonry buildings and weak chimneys damaged. -Napier 10 5 Generally felt indoors and outside; most sleepers wakened and a few people alarmed; small objects displaced and broken; a few windows cracked. 4 Generally noticed indoors as a jolt, or similar to vibration from heavy traffic; glassware and crockery rattle; liquids slightly disturbed; buildings may creak. Felt indoors as similar to vibration from a 3 passing truck; may not be recognised as an earthquake. 2 Slight shaking, normally felt only by people at rest or on upper floors. Recent history has not been representative of New Zealand's actual earthquake risk. Up until 22 February 2011 there had not been an earthquake close enough to a major city to cause widespread damage and loss of life since Hawke's Bay in 1931. It is highly unlikely that it will be another 80 years before the next destructive earthquake occurs. For everything you need to get ready www.GetThru.govt.nz FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS COVERED IN THIS INFOGRAPHIC VISIT LICENSED UNDER THE CREATIVE COMMONS ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL goo.gl/WYA5W FOR COMMERCIAL USE, PLEASE CONTACT US INFO@MCH.GOVT.NZ Information, diagrams and data from: Submit your stories and photos of the Canterbury quakes to: I TeAra.govt.nz ARA The Encyclopedia of New Zealand QuakeStories.govt.nz NZ NZHistory.net.nz HISTORY Manatū Taonga Ministry for Culture & Heritage Perspectives Perspectives is a series of infographics and visualisations designed to present information on New Zealand topics in new ways. goo.gl/WYA5W The shaky isles: Canterbury & other quakes On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand. Officially it was one of more than 10,000 aftershocks of the less destructive magnitude 7.1 earthquake that struck on 4 September 2010. 6.0 aftershock 23 December 2011 CHRISTCHURCH 7.1 earthquake Darfield. 4 September 2010 Greendale Fault 6.3 aftershock 22 February 2011 Magnitude 6.4 aftershock 13 June 2011 Over 6 • 5.0-6.0 • 4.0-5.0 • 3.5-4.0 • 3.0-3.5 I felt the aftershocks were like a home invasion - you close your curtains and you lock your door when you go to bed at night and they enter into your house without an invite? -Louise Swatton 2.5-3.0 0-2.5 QuakeStories.govt.nz/362/story/ SOURCE: GEONET MURCHISON 1929 7.8 5 Since Christchurch was settled in 1850 it has been shaken by earthquakes from across the Canterbury region. Earthquake magnitude Ground shaking intensity felt in CHRISTCHURCH Magnitude scale Modified Mercalli scale HOPE FAULT 1888 7 5-6 CHEVIOT 1901 6.9 6 7.1 6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 6.7 3-6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1994 MOTUNAU 1922 6.4 6-7 7 6 CASTLE HILL 1881 CHRISTCHURCH 1869 5 7-8 5.5 6-7 LAKE ELLESMERE 1870 Across New Zealand earthquakes have disrupted towns and cities, and caused injury and death. 6.9 6 EDGECUMBE 1987 Ground shaking intensity felt near epicentre FATALITIES: NONE Earthquake magnitude 7.8 10 HAWKE'S BAY 1931 7.8 9 7.5 9. FATALITIES: 258 MURCHISON 1929 MARLBOROUGH 1848 FATALITIES: 17 FATALITIES: 3 7.2 8 WAIRARAPA 1942 7.1 10 FATALITIES: 1 ÎNANGAHUA 1968 FATALITIES: 2 8.2 10 WAIRARAPA 1855 FATALITIES: 5-9 7.1 8 8.2 10 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 FATALITIES: NONE HOPE FAULT 1888 FATALITIES: NONE Magnitude scale 7.1 9 6.3 9 Modified Mercalli DARFIELD 2010 CHRISTCHURCH 2011 FATALITIES: NONE FATALITIES: 185 For centuries before Europeans arrived, Māori had experienced rū whenua, which means 'the shaking of the land'. They described two severe earthquakes, at Taupõ and Rotorua. It was said that a Rotorua pā where about 1,000 people lived was swallowed up, and the area became a lake. Why does New Zealand have so many earthquakes? Earth's main features - its continents and ocean floors - are not fixed. The earth's surface is divided AUSTRALIAN PLATE into about 15 major segments, known as plates. Most earthquakes in the world happen where two plates meet. New Zealand sits where the Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate meet. Along plates there are many faults in the earth's crust. When stress builds up in the crust, it can eventually cause the crust to break suddenly along a fault. This movement releases energy, and is felt on the surface as an earthquake. PACIFIC PLATE BOUNDARY PLATE SOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Faults Shallow earthquake CONTINENTAL CRUST OCEANIC CRUST AUSTRALIAN PLATE PLATE Deep earthquake O PACIFIC The Pacific Plate moves steadly at a rate of 4-5 cm per year. Earthquake risk SSOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Less than 2,000 years between surface ruptures Active faults SOURCE: GNS SCIENCE More than 2,000 years between surface ruptures RISK OF EARTHQUAKES LESS SEVERE > MORE SEVERE ALPINE FAULT GREENDALE FAULT These predictions are based on the distribution of active faults, how frequently faults have moved in the past, and the location of historic earthquakes. The 2010-11 Canterbury earthquakes are outside the areas of greatest statistical risk of high ground shaking. This shows that large earthquakes may occur anywhere in the New Zealand region, not just in the highest risk areas. How are earthquakes measured? The magnitude scale measures the size of an earthquake at its focus. Epicentre Surface rupture Depth Fault FOCUS An earthquake generates two different waves. The P-wave (primary or pressure wave) is a pulse of energy that travels quickly through the earth and through liquids. It forces the ground to move backwards and forwards as it is compressed and expanded. COMPRESSION COMPRESSION The S-wave (secondary or shear wave) follows more slowly, with a swaying, rolling motion that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave. The waves are recorded on a seismograph... Primary Secondary waves waves AMPLITUDE 23 mm ...and then measured: Amount of shaking (in millimetres). S-P TIME 24 sec Time (in seconds) between the primary (P) and secondary (S) waves. Seismologists study the way waves travel through the planet to better understand the earth's interior. 50 100 40 - - 50 23 /20 30 24 E 10 Where the two values intersect, you find the measurement on the magnitude scale. 20 It takes around 20 minutes for the seismic waves to travel through to the other side of the planet. 10 - 6- F1 4 F0.5 F0.2 AMPLITUDE (mm) S-waves cannot be detected opposite the earthquake as they do not pass through the liquid core. MAGNITUDE S-P (sec) 8 A single step in the magnitude scale represents an increase of about 30 times the energy released at the source deep the ear magnitude 5 earthquake is therefore about 900 times bigger than a magnitude 3 earthquake. 5. THE RICHTER SCALE The Richter magnitude was based on the largest amplitude 'wiggle' recorded on a seismograph. It worked well, but magnitudes of very large earthquakes were underestimated. Today, with better instruments, scientists can measure the energy of the different types of earthquake waves. The size of earthquakes is referred to as magnitude, but it is no longer measured on the Richter scale. Unlike the magnitude scale, which measures the size of an earthquake at its focus - the source deep below the surface, the modified Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking felt by people on the ground. From observations gathered after an earthquake, it is possible to draw lines of intensity that radiate outwards from the epicentre. 10 Widespread damage to buildings; many collapse or are partly destroyed; landsliding very widespread in steep terrain; severe liquefaction in soft ground. 1931 HAWKE'S BAY EARTHQUAKE 9 Many buildings damaged and some collapse; unsecured houses move off foundations; brick veneers collapse; widespread cracking and landsliding. MAGNITUDE 7.8 8 Alarm may approach panic; cars hard to steer; some buildings damaged, and weaker ones may collapse; small to moderate landslides; water generally disturbed. 7 General alarm; difficulty standing; car drivers may stop; unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked, and some buildings damaged; unrestrained water cylinders may move and burst; small rockfalls and landslides. 6 Felt by all; people and animals alarmed; difficulty in walking steadily; objects fall from shelves; unstable furniture tipped over; slight damage to some masonry buildings and weak chimneys damaged. -Napier 10 5 Generally felt indoors and outside; most sleepers wakened and a few people alarmed; small objects displaced and broken; a few windows cracked. 4 Generally noticed indoors as a jolt, or similar to vibration from heavy traffic; glassware and crockery rattle; liquids slightly disturbed; buildings may creak. Felt indoors as similar to vibration from a 3 passing truck; may not be recognised as an earthquake. 2 Slight shaking, normally felt only by people at rest or on upper floors. Recent history has not been representative of New Zealand's actual earthquake risk. Up until 22 February 2011 there had not been an earthquake close enough to a major city to cause widespread damage and loss of life since Hawke's Bay in 1931. It is highly unlikely that it will be another 80 years before the next destructive earthquake occurs. For everything you need to get ready www.GetThru.govt.nz FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS COVERED IN THIS INFOGRAPHIC VISIT LICENSED UNDER THE CREATIVE COMMONS ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL goo.gl/WYA5W FOR COMMERCIAL USE, PLEASE CONTACT US INFO@MCH.GOVT.NZ Information, diagrams and data from: Submit your stories and photos of the Canterbury quakes to: I TeAra.govt.nz ARA The Encyclopedia of New Zealand QuakeStories.govt.nz NZ NZHistory.net.nz HISTORY Manatū Taonga Ministry for Culture & Heritage Perspectives Perspectives is a series of infographics and visualisations designed to present information on New Zealand topics in new ways. goo.gl/WYA5W The shaky isles: Canterbury & other quakes On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand. Officially it was one of more than 10,000 aftershocks of the less destructive magnitude 7.1 earthquake that struck on 4 September 2010. 6.0 aftershock 23 December 2011 CHRISTCHURCH 7.1 earthquake Darfield. 4 September 2010 Greendale Fault 6.3 aftershock 22 February 2011 Magnitude 6.4 aftershock 13 June 2011 Over 6 • 5.0-6.0 • 4.0-5.0 • 3.5-4.0 • 3.0-3.5 I felt the aftershocks were like a home invasion - you close your curtains and you lock your door when you go to bed at night and they enter into your house without an invite? -Louise Swatton 2.5-3.0 0-2.5 QuakeStories.govt.nz/362/story/ SOURCE: GEONET MURCHISON 1929 7.8 5 Since Christchurch was settled in 1850 it has been shaken by earthquakes from across the Canterbury region. Earthquake magnitude Ground shaking intensity felt in CHRISTCHURCH Magnitude scale Modified Mercalli scale HOPE FAULT 1888 7 5-6 CHEVIOT 1901 6.9 6 7.1 6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 6.7 3-6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1994 MOTUNAU 1922 6.4 6-7 7 6 CASTLE HILL 1881 CHRISTCHURCH 1869 5 7-8 5.5 6-7 LAKE ELLESMERE 1870 Across New Zealand earthquakes have disrupted towns and cities, and caused injury and death. 6.9 6 EDGECUMBE 1987 Ground shaking intensity felt near epicentre FATALITIES: NONE Earthquake magnitude 7.8 10 HAWKE'S BAY 1931 7.8 9 7.5 9. FATALITIES: 258 MURCHISON 1929 MARLBOROUGH 1848 FATALITIES: 17 FATALITIES: 3 7.2 8 WAIRARAPA 1942 7.1 10 FATALITIES: 1 ÎNANGAHUA 1968 FATALITIES: 2 8.2 10 WAIRARAPA 1855 FATALITIES: 5-9 7.1 8 8.2 10 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 FATALITIES: NONE HOPE FAULT 1888 FATALITIES: NONE Magnitude scale 7.1 9 6.3 9 Modified Mercalli DARFIELD 2010 CHRISTCHURCH 2011 FATALITIES: NONE FATALITIES: 185 For centuries before Europeans arrived, Māori had experienced rū whenua, which means 'the shaking of the land'. They described two severe earthquakes, at Taupõ and Rotorua. It was said that a Rotorua pā where about 1,000 people lived was swallowed up, and the area became a lake. Why does New Zealand have so many earthquakes? Earth's main features - its continents and ocean floors - are not fixed. The earth's surface is divided AUSTRALIAN PLATE into about 15 major segments, known as plates. Most earthquakes in the world happen where two plates meet. New Zealand sits where the Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate meet. Along plates there are many faults in the earth's crust. When stress builds up in the crust, it can eventually cause the crust to break suddenly along a fault. This movement releases energy, and is felt on the surface as an earthquake. PACIFIC PLATE BOUNDARY PLATE SOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Faults Shallow earthquake CONTINENTAL CRUST OCEANIC CRUST AUSTRALIAN PLATE PLATE Deep earthquake O PACIFIC The Pacific Plate moves steadly at a rate of 4-5 cm per year. Earthquake risk SSOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Less than 2,000 years between surface ruptures Active faults SOURCE: GNS SCIENCE More than 2,000 years between surface ruptures RISK OF EARTHQUAKES LESS SEVERE > MORE SEVERE ALPINE FAULT GREENDALE FAULT These predictions are based on the distribution of active faults, how frequently faults have moved in the past, and the location of historic earthquakes. The 2010-11 Canterbury earthquakes are outside the areas of greatest statistical risk of high ground shaking. This shows that large earthquakes may occur anywhere in the New Zealand region, not just in the highest risk areas. How are earthquakes measured? The magnitude scale measures the size of an earthquake at its focus. Epicentre Surface rupture Depth Fault FOCUS An earthquake generates two different waves. The P-wave (primary or pressure wave) is a pulse of energy that travels quickly through the earth and through liquids. It forces the ground to move backwards and forwards as it is compressed and expanded. COMPRESSION COMPRESSION The S-wave (secondary or shear wave) follows more slowly, with a swaying, rolling motion that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave. The waves are recorded on a seismograph... Primary Secondary waves waves AMPLITUDE 23 mm ...and then measured: Amount of shaking (in millimetres). S-P TIME 24 sec Time (in seconds) between the primary (P) and secondary (S) waves. Seismologists study the way waves travel through the planet to better understand the earth's interior. 50 100 40 - - 50 23 /20 30 24 E 10 Where the two values intersect, you find the measurement on the magnitude scale. 20 It takes around 20 minutes for the seismic waves to travel through to the other side of the planet. 10 - 6- F1 4 F0.5 F0.2 AMPLITUDE (mm) S-waves cannot be detected opposite the earthquake as they do not pass through the liquid core. MAGNITUDE S-P (sec) 8 A single step in the magnitude scale represents an increase of about 30 times the energy released at the source deep the ear magnitude 5 earthquake is therefore about 900 times bigger than a magnitude 3 earthquake. 5. THE RICHTER SCALE The Richter magnitude was based on the largest amplitude 'wiggle' recorded on a seismograph. It worked well, but magnitudes of very large earthquakes were underestimated. Today, with better instruments, scientists can measure the energy of the different types of earthquake waves. The size of earthquakes is referred to as magnitude, but it is no longer measured on the Richter scale. Unlike the magnitude scale, which measures the size of an earthquake at its focus - the source deep below the surface, the modified Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking felt by people on the ground. From observations gathered after an earthquake, it is possible to draw lines of intensity that radiate outwards from the epicentre. 10 Widespread damage to buildings; many collapse or are partly destroyed; landsliding very widespread in steep terrain; severe liquefaction in soft ground. 1931 HAWKE'S BAY EARTHQUAKE 9 Many buildings damaged and some collapse; unsecured houses move off foundations; brick veneers collapse; widespread cracking and landsliding. MAGNITUDE 7.8 8 Alarm may approach panic; cars hard to steer; some buildings damaged, and weaker ones may collapse; small to moderate landslides; water generally disturbed. 7 General alarm; difficulty standing; car drivers may stop; unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked, and some buildings damaged; unrestrained water cylinders may move and burst; small rockfalls and landslides. 6 Felt by all; people and animals alarmed; difficulty in walking steadily; objects fall from shelves; unstable furniture tipped over; slight damage to some masonry buildings and weak chimneys damaged. -Napier 10 5 Generally felt indoors and outside; most sleepers wakened and a few people alarmed; small objects displaced and broken; a few windows cracked. 4 Generally noticed indoors as a jolt, or similar to vibration from heavy traffic; glassware and crockery rattle; liquids slightly disturbed; buildings may creak. Felt indoors as similar to vibration from a 3 passing truck; may not be recognised as an earthquake. 2 Slight shaking, normally felt only by people at rest or on upper floors. Recent history has not been representative of New Zealand's actual earthquake risk. Up until 22 February 2011 there had not been an earthquake close enough to a major city to cause widespread damage and loss of life since Hawke's Bay in 1931. It is highly unlikely that it will be another 80 years before the next destructive earthquake occurs. For everything you need to get ready www.GetThru.govt.nz FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS COVERED IN THIS INFOGRAPHIC VISIT LICENSED UNDER THE CREATIVE COMMONS ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL goo.gl/WYA5W FOR COMMERCIAL USE, PLEASE CONTACT US INFO@MCH.GOVT.NZ Information, diagrams and data from: Submit your stories and photos of the Canterbury quakes to: I TeAra.govt.nz ARA The Encyclopedia of New Zealand QuakeStories.govt.nz NZ NZHistory.net.nz HISTORY Manatū Taonga Ministry for Culture & Heritage Perspectives Perspectives is a series of infographics and visualisations designed to present information on New Zealand topics in new ways. goo.gl/WYA5W The shaky isles: Canterbury & other quakes On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand. Officially it was one of more than 10,000 aftershocks of the less destructive magnitude 7.1 earthquake that struck on 4 September 2010. 6.0 aftershock 23 December 2011 CHRISTCHURCH 7.1 earthquake Darfield. 4 September 2010 Greendale Fault 6.3 aftershock 22 February 2011 Magnitude 6.4 aftershock 13 June 2011 Over 6 • 5.0-6.0 • 4.0-5.0 • 3.5-4.0 • 3.0-3.5 I felt the aftershocks were like a home invasion - you close your curtains and you lock your door when you go to bed at night and they enter into your house without an invite? -Louise Swatton 2.5-3.0 0-2.5 QuakeStories.govt.nz/362/story/ SOURCE: GEONET MURCHISON 1929 7.8 5 Since Christchurch was settled in 1850 it has been shaken by earthquakes from across the Canterbury region. Earthquake magnitude Ground shaking intensity felt in CHRISTCHURCH Magnitude scale Modified Mercalli scale HOPE FAULT 1888 7 5-6 CHEVIOT 1901 6.9 6 7.1 6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 6.7 3-6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1994 MOTUNAU 1922 6.4 6-7 7 6 CASTLE HILL 1881 CHRISTCHURCH 1869 5 7-8 5.5 6-7 LAKE ELLESMERE 1870 Across New Zealand earthquakes have disrupted towns and cities, and caused injury and death. 6.9 6 EDGECUMBE 1987 Ground shaking intensity felt near epicentre FATALITIES: NONE Earthquake magnitude 7.8 10 HAWKE'S BAY 1931 7.8 9 7.5 9. FATALITIES: 258 MURCHISON 1929 MARLBOROUGH 1848 FATALITIES: 17 FATALITIES: 3 7.2 8 WAIRARAPA 1942 7.1 10 FATALITIES: 1 ÎNANGAHUA 1968 FATALITIES: 2 8.2 10 WAIRARAPA 1855 FATALITIES: 5-9 7.1 8 8.2 10 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 FATALITIES: NONE HOPE FAULT 1888 FATALITIES: NONE Magnitude scale 7.1 9 6.3 9 Modified Mercalli DARFIELD 2010 CHRISTCHURCH 2011 FATALITIES: NONE FATALITIES: 185 For centuries before Europeans arrived, Māori had experienced rū whenua, which means 'the shaking of the land'. They described two severe earthquakes, at Taupõ and Rotorua. It was said that a Rotorua pā where about 1,000 people lived was swallowed up, and the area became a lake. Why does New Zealand have so many earthquakes? Earth's main features - its continents and ocean floors - are not fixed. The earth's surface is divided AUSTRALIAN PLATE into about 15 major segments, known as plates. Most earthquakes in the world happen where two plates meet. New Zealand sits where the Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate meet. Along plates there are many faults in the earth's crust. When stress builds up in the crust, it can eventually cause the crust to break suddenly along a fault. This movement releases energy, and is felt on the surface as an earthquake. PACIFIC PLATE BOUNDARY PLATE SOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Faults Shallow earthquake CONTINENTAL CRUST OCEANIC CRUST AUSTRALIAN PLATE PLATE Deep earthquake O PACIFIC The Pacific Plate moves steadly at a rate of 4-5 cm per year. Earthquake risk SSOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Less than 2,000 years between surface ruptures Active faults SOURCE: GNS SCIENCE More than 2,000 years between surface ruptures RISK OF EARTHQUAKES LESS SEVERE > MORE SEVERE ALPINE FAULT GREENDALE FAULT These predictions are based on the distribution of active faults, how frequently faults have moved in the past, and the location of historic earthquakes. The 2010-11 Canterbury earthquakes are outside the areas of greatest statistical risk of high ground shaking. This shows that large earthquakes may occur anywhere in the New Zealand region, not just in the highest risk areas. How are earthquakes measured? The magnitude scale measures the size of an earthquake at its focus. Epicentre Surface rupture Depth Fault FOCUS An earthquake generates two different waves. The P-wave (primary or pressure wave) is a pulse of energy that travels quickly through the earth and through liquids. It forces the ground to move backwards and forwards as it is compressed and expanded. COMPRESSION COMPRESSION The S-wave (secondary or shear wave) follows more slowly, with a swaying, rolling motion that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave. The waves are recorded on a seismograph... Primary Secondary waves waves AMPLITUDE 23 mm ...and then measured: Amount of shaking (in millimetres). S-P TIME 24 sec Time (in seconds) between the primary (P) and secondary (S) waves. Seismologists study the way waves travel through the planet to better understand the earth's interior. 50 100 40 - - 50 23 /20 30 24 E 10 Where the two values intersect, you find the measurement on the magnitude scale. 20 It takes around 20 minutes for the seismic waves to travel through to the other side of the planet. 10 - 6- F1 4 F0.5 F0.2 AMPLITUDE (mm) S-waves cannot be detected opposite the earthquake as they do not pass through the liquid core. MAGNITUDE S-P (sec) 8 A single step in the magnitude scale represents an increase of about 30 times the energy released at the source deep the ear magnitude 5 earthquake is therefore about 900 times bigger than a magnitude 3 earthquake. 5. THE RICHTER SCALE The Richter magnitude was based on the largest amplitude 'wiggle' recorded on a seismograph. It worked well, but magnitudes of very large earthquakes were underestimated. Today, with better instruments, scientists can measure the energy of the different types of earthquake waves. The size of earthquakes is referred to as magnitude, but it is no longer measured on the Richter scale. Unlike the magnitude scale, which measures the size of an earthquake at its focus - the source deep below the surface, the modified Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking felt by people on the ground. From observations gathered after an earthquake, it is possible to draw lines of intensity that radiate outwards from the epicentre. 10 Widespread damage to buildings; many collapse or are partly destroyed; landsliding very widespread in steep terrain; severe liquefaction in soft ground. 1931 HAWKE'S BAY EARTHQUAKE 9 Many buildings damaged and some collapse; unsecured houses move off foundations; brick veneers collapse; widespread cracking and landsliding. MAGNITUDE 7.8 8 Alarm may approach panic; cars hard to steer; some buildings damaged, and weaker ones may collapse; small to moderate landslides; water generally disturbed. 7 General alarm; difficulty standing; car drivers may stop; unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked, and some buildings damaged; unrestrained water cylinders may move and burst; small rockfalls and landslides. 6 Felt by all; people and animals alarmed; difficulty in walking steadily; objects fall from shelves; unstable furniture tipped over; slight damage to some masonry buildings and weak chimneys damaged. -Napier 10 5 Generally felt indoors and outside; most sleepers wakened and a few people alarmed; small objects displaced and broken; a few windows cracked. 4 Generally noticed indoors as a jolt, or similar to vibration from heavy traffic; glassware and crockery rattle; liquids slightly disturbed; buildings may creak. Felt indoors as similar to vibration from a 3 passing truck; may not be recognised as an earthquake. 2 Slight shaking, normally felt only by people at rest or on upper floors. Recent history has not been representative of New Zealand's actual earthquake risk. Up until 22 February 2011 there had not been an earthquake close enough to a major city to cause widespread damage and loss of life since Hawke's Bay in 1931. It is highly unlikely that it will be another 80 years before the next destructive earthquake occurs. For everything you need to get ready www.GetThru.govt.nz FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS COVERED IN THIS INFOGRAPHIC VISIT LICENSED UNDER THE CREATIVE COMMONS ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL goo.gl/WYA5W FOR COMMERCIAL USE, PLEASE CONTACT US INFO@MCH.GOVT.NZ Information, diagrams and data from: Submit your stories and photos of the Canterbury quakes to: I TeAra.govt.nz ARA The Encyclopedia of New Zealand QuakeStories.govt.nz NZ NZHistory.net.nz HISTORY Manatū Taonga Ministry for Culture & Heritage Perspectives Perspectives is a series of infographics and visualisations designed to present information on New Zealand topics in new ways. goo.gl/WYA5W The shaky isles: Canterbury & other quakes On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand. Officially it was one of more than 10,000 aftershocks of the less destructive magnitude 7.1 earthquake that struck on 4 September 2010. 6.0 aftershock 23 December 2011 CHRISTCHURCH 7.1 earthquake Darfield. 4 September 2010 Greendale Fault 6.3 aftershock 22 February 2011 Magnitude 6.4 aftershock 13 June 2011 Over 6 • 5.0-6.0 • 4.0-5.0 • 3.5-4.0 • 3.0-3.5 I felt the aftershocks were like a home invasion - you close your curtains and you lock your door when you go to bed at night and they enter into your house without an invite? -Louise Swatton 2.5-3.0 0-2.5 QuakeStories.govt.nz/362/story/ SOURCE: GEONET MURCHISON 1929 7.8 5 Since Christchurch was settled in 1850 it has been shaken by earthquakes from across the Canterbury region. Earthquake magnitude Ground shaking intensity felt in CHRISTCHURCH Magnitude scale Modified Mercalli scale HOPE FAULT 1888 7 5-6 CHEVIOT 1901 6.9 6 7.1 6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 6.7 3-6 ARTHUR'S PASS 1994 MOTUNAU 1922 6.4 6-7 7 6 CASTLE HILL 1881 CHRISTCHURCH 1869 5 7-8 5.5 6-7 LAKE ELLESMERE 1870 Across New Zealand earthquakes have disrupted towns and cities, and caused injury and death. 6.9 6 EDGECUMBE 1987 Ground shaking intensity felt near epicentre FATALITIES: NONE Earthquake magnitude 7.8 10 HAWKE'S BAY 1931 7.8 9 7.5 9. FATALITIES: 258 MURCHISON 1929 MARLBOROUGH 1848 FATALITIES: 17 FATALITIES: 3 7.2 8 WAIRARAPA 1942 7.1 10 FATALITIES: 1 ÎNANGAHUA 1968 FATALITIES: 2 8.2 10 WAIRARAPA 1855 FATALITIES: 5-9 7.1 8 8.2 10 ARTHUR'S PASS 1929 FATALITIES: NONE HOPE FAULT 1888 FATALITIES: NONE Magnitude scale 7.1 9 6.3 9 Modified Mercalli DARFIELD 2010 CHRISTCHURCH 2011 FATALITIES: NONE FATALITIES: 185 For centuries before Europeans arrived, Māori had experienced rū whenua, which means 'the shaking of the land'. They described two severe earthquakes, at Taupõ and Rotorua. It was said that a Rotorua pā where about 1,000 people lived was swallowed up, and the area became a lake. Why does New Zealand have so many earthquakes? Earth's main features - its continents and ocean floors - are not fixed. The earth's surface is divided AUSTRALIAN PLATE into about 15 major segments, known as plates. Most earthquakes in the world happen where two plates meet. New Zealand sits where the Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate meet. Along plates there are many faults in the earth's crust. When stress builds up in the crust, it can eventually cause the crust to break suddenly along a fault. This movement releases energy, and is felt on the surface as an earthquake. PACIFIC PLATE BOUNDARY PLATE SOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Faults Shallow earthquake CONTINENTAL CRUST OCEANIC CRUST AUSTRALIAN PLATE PLATE Deep earthquake O PACIFIC The Pacific Plate moves steadly at a rate of 4-5 cm per year. Earthquake risk SSOURCE: GNs SCIENCE Less than 2,000 years between surface ruptures Active faults SOURCE: GNS SCIENCE More than 2,000 years between surface ruptures RISK OF EARTHQUAKES LESS SEVERE > MORE SEVERE ALPINE FAULT GREENDALE FAULT These predictions are based on the distribution of active faults, how frequently faults have moved in the past, and the location of historic earthquakes. The 2010-11 Canterbury earthquakes are outside the areas of greatest statistical risk of high ground shaking. This shows that large earthquakes may occur anywhere in the New Zealand region, not just in the highest risk areas. How are earthquakes measured? The magnitude scale measures the size of an earthquake at its focus. Epicentre Surface rupture Depth Fault FOCUS An earthquake generates two different waves. The P-wave (primary or pressure wave) is a pulse of energy that travels quickly through the earth and through liquids. It forces the ground to move backwards and forwards as it is compressed and expanded. COMPRESSION COMPRESSION The S-wave (secondary or shear wave) follows more slowly, with a swaying, rolling motion that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the wave. The waves are recorded on a seismograph... Primary Secondary waves waves AMPLITUDE 23 mm ...and then measured: Amount of shaking (in millimetres). S-P TIME 24 sec Time (in seconds) between the primary (P) and secondary (S) waves. Seismologists study the way waves travel through the planet to better understand the earth's interior. 50 100 40 - - 50 23 /20 30 24 E 10 Where the two values intersect, you find the measurement on the magnitude scale. 20 It takes around 20 minutes for the seismic waves to travel through to the other side of the planet. 10 - 6- F1 4 F0.5 F0.2 AMPLITUDE (mm) S-waves cannot be detected opposite the earthquake as they do not pass through the liquid core. MAGNITUDE S-P (sec) 8 A single step in the magnitude scale represents an increase of about 30 times the energy released at the source deep the ear magnitude 5 earthquake is therefore about 900 times bigger than a magnitude 3 earthquake. 5. THE RICHTER SCALE The Richter magnitude was based on the largest amplitude 'wiggle' recorded on a seismograph. It worked well, but magnitudes of very large earthquakes were underestimated. Today, with better instruments, scientists can measure the energy of the different types of earthquake waves. The size of earthquakes is referred to as magnitude, but it is no longer measured on the Richter scale. Unlike the magnitude scale, which measures the size of an earthquake at its focus - the source deep below the surface, the modified Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking felt by people on the ground. From observations gathered after an earthquake, it is possible to draw lines of intensity that radiate outwards from the epicentre. 10 Widespread damage to buildings; many collapse or are partly destroyed; landsliding very widespread in steep terrain; severe liquefaction in soft ground. 1931 HAWKE'S BAY EARTHQUAKE 9 Many buildings damaged and some collapse; unsecured houses move off foundations; brick veneers collapse; widespread cracking and landsliding. MAGNITUDE 7.8 8 Alarm may approach panic; cars hard to steer; some buildings damaged, and weaker ones may collapse; small to moderate landslides; water generally disturbed. 7 General alarm; difficulty standing; car drivers may stop; unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked, and some buildings damaged; unrestrained water cylinders may move and burst; small rockfalls and landslides. 6 Felt by all; people and animals alarmed; difficulty in walking steadily; objects fall from shelves; unstable furniture tipped over; slight damage to some masonry buildings and weak chimneys damaged. -Napier 10 5 Generally felt indoors and outside; most sleepers wakened and a few people alarmed; small objects displaced and broken; a few windows cracked. 4 Generally noticed indoors as a jolt, or similar to vibration from heavy traffic; glassware and crockery rattle; liquids slightly disturbed; buildings may creak. Felt indoors as similar to vibration from a 3 passing truck; may not be recognised as an earthquake. 2 Slight shaking, normally felt only by people at rest or on upper floors. Recent history has not been representative of New Zealand's actual earthquake risk. Up until 22 February 2011 there had not been an earthquake close enough to a major city to cause widespread damage and loss of life since Hawke's Bay in 1931. It is highly unlikely that it will be another 80 years before the next destructive earthquake occurs. For everything you need to get ready www.GetThru.govt.nz FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT IS COVERED IN THIS INFOGRAPHIC VISIT LICENSED UNDER THE CREATIVE COMMONS ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL goo.gl/WYA5W FOR COMMERCIAL USE, PLEASE CONTACT US INFO@MCH.GOVT.NZ Information, diagrams and data from: Submit your stories and photos of the Canterbury quakes to: I TeAra.govt.nz ARA The Encyclopedia of New Zealand QuakeStories.govt.nz NZ NZHistory.net.nz HISTORY

The shaky isles: Canterbury & other quakes

shared by ManatuTaonga on Apr 05
510 views
0 share
0 comments
This infographic poster was created for the anniversary of the 22 February 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand that killed 185 people. It was created using diagrams from Te Ara – The Encycl...

Category

Geography
Did you work on this visual? Claim credit!

Get a Quote

Embed Code

For hosted site:

Click the code to copy

For wordpress.com:

Click the code to copy
Customize size