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Genetically Modified Food (GMO) – The Good, The Bad and The Ugly

THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY: A SNAPSHOT OF THE GMO DEBATE The debate continues over whether genetically modified organisms are out to save the world or destroy it. But the argument for either side is far from cut-and-dry. Learn the backstory on a few of the most pressing issues of the controversy. What Is a Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)? WHEN WERE THEY INTRODUCED TO OUR FOOD SUPPLY? HOW THEY'RE MADE Genes from one species DNA are artificially inserted into the genes of another animal or plant Mid-1990s 93% 90% 82% of soybeans are herbicide-tolerant of corn acreage is genetically engineered of cotton is herbicide-tolerant 6 companies control almost 70% of the world pesticide market, and almost the entire GM seed market: Monsanto BASF Syngenta Bayer Dow Agrosciences Pioneer (DuPont) The Case The Case for GMOS against GMOS Less Herbicide Use, or More? A study by PG Economics found a Because of the development of herbicide-resistant superweeds, a study from Pennsylvania State University in University Park predicts GM crop use will result in more herbicide use: 6.1% decrease 1996 2011 in the use of herbicide on GM cotton, 1996-2011, compared to how much would have been used 2013: About 1.5 kg. per hectare 2025: More than 3.5 kg. per hectare The Ugly A 2013 study found that speedy adoption of GM crops in the U.S. has increased herbicide use in the last 9 years Spread of the Superweed? Herbicide resistance develops no matter what: Case study: Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Where: Southeastern U.S. What: Evolved to be resistant to a combination of GM cotton and glyphosate, an herbicide When: Late 1990s: Farmers start using the crop-herbicide combo 2011: Palmer amaranth has Some farmers lose half spread to 76 counties their yield to this weed Since Roundup-tolerant crops were first introduced in 1996, weeds are resistant to atrazine, an herbicide that hasn't been h4 paired with GM crops glyphosate-resistant 24 weeds have appeared in 18 countries The Ugly A study by a Washington State University professor linked GM crops and superweeds to a O000 404 INCREASE milion pound In pesticide use between 1996 (when GM crops were introduced) and 2011 The Impact on Yields A Union of Concerned Scientists review of The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications claims that biotech crops increased production by more than DBDS 12 DDDD | academic studies $98 BILLION covering 20 years found no increased yields among GM crops, except with Bt corn 1996-2011 The Ugly Uganda's National Agricultural Research Organization has developed a bacteria-resistant banana, but GM crops are illegal in Uganda The average Ugandan eats 1 pound of bananas per day ふみみ A bacterial disease has reduced Ugandan banana yields 30-50% in the last decade 6- 1oz. The Health Debate Animal testing has found evidence of the following possible health effects of GM foods, according to the American Academy of Environmental Medicine: The FDA says GM plants must meet the same REQUIREMENTS as all other foods = Immune dysregulation A comprehensive meta-analysis conducted at Stanford University found no strong evidence that organic food is more nutritious or less likely to carry health risks compared to conventional foods = Altered liver function Changes in the = pancreas, kidney, & spleen Agencies that have endorsed the safety of GM food include: World Health Organization U.S. National Academy of Sciences of Americans would be less likely 57% to buy foods that are labeled GM >6U countries require GMO food labeling because of concerns about their health impacts American Medical Association The Ugly 69 30 In 2011, blood tests of women in Quebec found pesticides associated with GM foods circulating in their bodies and their fetuses' bodies of them pregnant 1- 10 WOMEN The Financial & Social Impacts As of 2012, Monsanto hadn't sued any famers for trace amounts of GM crops likely spread through cross-pollination Large GMO companies can sue farmers for growing their seeds without paying royalties American farmers were buying seeds every year (rather than saving them) before GM crops came along Because the seeds spread naturally, they're growing in other farmers' fields, making these farmers susceptible to lawsuit 100 Poor farmers in developing countries may not be able to afford to buy new seeds every year The Ugly User agreements with companies such as LMonsanto-o-Syngenta–o–PioneerJ prohibit seeds' use for independent research Perhaps the greatest impediment to the GMO debate is that GMOS have been around for only about two decades, and longer-term impacts of GMO crops on yield success, consumer health, and environmental impact have yet to be explored. So stay on the lookout for GMO in the news: the debate looks to continue for quite some time. Sources: CARRINGTON COLLEGE http://www.responsbletechnology.org/gmoeducation http://www.ers.usda.gowdataproducts/adoptionafgeneticallyengineeredcropsintheus/recentrendsingeadoption.aspoc#.Ujlq0BEyfQ http://www.motherjones.com/tomphilpott/2012/oO/biotechgmoderegulation http://www.nature.com/news/casestudiesahardlookatgmcrops112907 http://www.nature.com/news/casestudiesahardlookatgmeropsL12907#h3 http://www.farbes.com/sites/bethhoffman/2013/07/02/gmocropsmeanmoreherbicidenotless/ http://www.nature.com/news/casestudiesahardlookatgmaropsL12907 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/02/geneticallymodifiederopspesticides.n.1931020.html http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications//briefs/44/pressrelease/ http://www.aaemonline.org/gmopost.html http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/06/17/192789454/willgmoshelpprotectugandanfamiliesagainsthunger http://www.fda.gowFood/FoodScienceResearch/Biotechnology/ucm346030.htm http://med.stanford.edu/ism/2012/septermber/organic.html http://www.aaemonline.org/gmopressrelease.html http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal31/n9/full/nbt.2700.html?WT.ec.id-NBT201309 http://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2013/09/12/washingtondebatecontinuesoverwhethertolabelgeneticallyengineeredfood/#.UjiKYOBEyfQ http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id-975678page-1 http://www.ncbinlm.nih.gow/pubmed/21338670 http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2012/10/18/163034053/topfivemythsofgeneticallymodifiedseedsbusted http://www.huffingtonpast.com/vandanashiva/fromseedsofsuicideto_b.192419.html http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id-doseedcompaniescontrolgmcropresearch http:/justlabelit.org/hightonow/labelingaroundtheworld/

Genetically Modified Food (GMO) – The Good, The Bad and The Ugly

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The debate continues whether genetically modified organisms are out to save the world or destroy it. But the argument from either side is far from cut-an-dry. Learn the backstory on a few of the most ...

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