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Experts Warn that Concussions are a Huge HIdden Threat to Young Athletes

NUMBERS WITH PROFOUND IMPACT The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research tracks a number of head injury statistics related to football annually. From 1995-2004... 14.7% 5.1% sustain concussion Experts warn that concussions are huge, hidden threat to young athletes will get a second concussion during season in same season 44 43 football players suffered head injury-related deaths THE DEADLY DING high school players sustained head injuries in which there was incomplete recovery College and high school football Of those who get a concussion college players sustained head injuries in which there was incomplete recovery players O MISCONCEPTION: It's no big deal SECOND-IMPACT SYNDROME: THE HIT THAT KILLS Survey of high school soccer players found that the No. 1 reason they didn't report a concussion was because they didn't think it was a serious problem. Temporal lobes functions: • emotional responses • transfering short- to long-term memory If the brain does not fully mature until mid-20s, injury in a still-developing brain could affect the trajectory of that development. After a concussion, energy-starved nerve cells are not able to perform at their peak, and are vulnerable to Of all SIS victims • processing speech • processing further damage or death. If another concussion occurs HOW A CONCUSSION HAPPENS before the athlete has recovered from the first, the conse- vision Injury can be caused by both sudden acceleration (being hit by a baseball) or by sudden deceleration 95% are under quences can be catastrophic. Second-Impact Syndrome (SIS) is fatal in up to half of the individuals who suffer it, and can cause major long-term brain damage and disability in the rest. (running into a goal post). Sudden 18 years of age Brain bounces and rotates inside cranium Source: Lindsay Barton, movement MOST SUSCEPTIBLE prefrontal cortex... of head Initial impact Source: Robert Cantu, M.D., Boston University and Brigham & Women's Hospital, The Dana Foundation 47% Brain bumps inside of skull, causing bruising on both sides of brain ... and temporal lobes reported at least ONE concussion during the season 35% reported MULTIPLE concussions during the season High school football players Neural tissue is violently jostled within the skull, which can directly damage both brain cells and the blood vessels that feed them. Initial impact triggers a cascade of biochemi- cal reactions, flooding brain with calcium and potassium ions that cause blood vessels to constrict and hamper metabolism of glucose, which brain uses for energy. End result is described as an energy crisis in the brain that can last for weeks after an injury. (9 times as many as reported by trainers) High school football players Female athletes and children seem more susceptible to concus- sions, possibly because their necks (50 times as many as reported by trainers) are weaker. Children's brains MISCONCEPTION: It can't be a concussion, because I didn't hit my head A blow anywhere on the body can result in a force that whips head and causes concussion. Source: Survey of players in Pennsylvania and Ohio, Wayne Langburt, et al, Journal of Child Neurology, 2001 tend to fit more Prefrontal tightly within the skull and are less cortex Source: Brenda Patoine, The Dana Foundation functions: resilient to HOW TO PREVENT CONCUSSIONS • reasoning • planning • decision-making • problem-solving • holding things in mind • switching between tasks • social cognitive abilities • making moral judgments • understanding subtle social intentions of other people swelling. • Everyone involved should be educated in the latest information on concussions. There SYMPTOMS OFA CONCUSSION is a growing awareness of the issue and many studies being done. • Push school or league to develop adequate concussion policies and action plans. • Change attitudes. Sometimes athletes, parents and coaches wrongly believe it shows strength and courage to play injured. • Any athlete showing signs of a concussion should stop play and not be allowed to return to competition until cleared by an appropri- ate health-care professional. • Always wear properly fitting protective head gear when playing a contact sport. Early signs: • Amnesia, lack of awareness • Headache • Dizziness or clumsiness • Nausea or vomiting • Answers questions slowly WITHIN MINUTES TO HOURS Late signs or symptoms: • Headaches • Light-headedness • Poor concentration • Trouble with memory • Irritability • Fatigue • Increased sensitivity to bright lights • Increased sensitivity to loud noises • Anxiety and/or depression • Sleep disturbance O MISCONCEPTION: I didn't pass out WITHIN DAYS THE PROBLEM IN THE PROS TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES IN THE U.S. 160 A recent, much-publicized study found that retired NFL players with a history of three or more concussions are more likely to experience clinical depression and mild cognitive impairment, which is an early hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Also, a posthumous study of NFL athletes' brains found tangles (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy) similar to those of an elderly person with dementia. The developing brain in a young person is more prone to injury than a mature brain in an adult. Scientists are concerned about what the long-term effects may be for young people who suffer multiple concussions. Average annual numbers, 1995-2001, for all ages and all types of brain injuries, not just sports WEEKS Number of concussions in the NFL FOOTBALL ??? with brain injuries receiving other medical care or no care • Continued enforcement of the ban on initial contact with the head each season in blocking and tackling. • Coaching in the proper skills of blocking and tackling. Source: League officials 1,111,000 emergency room visits BASEBALL & SOFTBALL Only a small percentage pass out. When there is a loss of consciousness, it typically will last only a few seconds and may not be noticeable. 235,000 hospitalizations • Either banning head-first slides or, if allowed, requiring that coaches teach players the safest ways to Source: Brain Injury Association of New Jersey execute this maneuver. 50,000 deaths • Requiring batting practice pitchers to wear helmets. 20 MOST DANGEROUS SPORTS AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES Number of head injuries treated in U.S. emergency rooms in 2008 Source: Centers for Disease Control SOCCER • Anchoring soccer goals and warning players to avoid climbing on them, and using proper moving, mainte- Cycling 70,802 How many concussions sports related? Since most concussions go unreported, the number of sports-related concussions that are reported is likely to be a huge under- estimate of the true scope of the problem. Football 40,825 nance, and storage. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commis- sion (CPSC) tracks product-related injuries. According to the CPSC, there were an estimated 351,922 sports-related head injuries treated at U.S. hospital emergency rooms in 2008. The actual incidence of head injuries may potentially Basketball 27,583 HOCKEY Baseball and softball 26,964 • Enforcement of current rules and consider new rules against pushing Powered recreational vehicles (ATVS, mini-bikes, etc.). 300,000 sports-related concussions reported each year 25,970 or checking from behind. • Developing conditioning programs to help players strengthen their neck muscles. Soccer 19,252 Skateboards/scooters (powered) be much higher because: 1) In the 2008 report, the CPSC excluded estimates for product categories that yielded 1,200 injuries or less, those that had very small sample counts, or those that were 18,324 Fitness/exercise/health club 14,713 750,000-2.25 million SWIMMING & DIVING estimated number of unidentified • Enforcing rules on racing dives in the shallow end of pools that require swimmers to start in the water if there is less than 3 1/2 feet of water, allow starts from platforms no higher than 18 inches for water 3 1/2 to 4 feet deep, and starts from Horseback riding 11,749 limited to a small geographic area of the country; 11,723 2) Many less severe head injuries are treated at physician's offices, sports-related concussions each year Winter sports (skiing, sledding, snowmobiling) Water sports (diving, surfing, swimming, water polo) immediate care centers, or self-treated. Included in these statistics are not only the sports/recreational activities, but the equipment and apparel used in these activities. For example, swimming- related injuries include the activity as well as Traumatic brain injuries treated in the emergency room, ages 5-14, 1995-2001 32% struck by/ against something 11,239 INJURIES IN FOOTBALL The CPSC estimates 4-5% of sports- related concussions occur in football, but that is probably a large underestimate Football 4-5% Golf 8,420 Gymnastics/dance/cheerleading 6,364 platforms up to inches above the water 28% fall 7% assault 2% other where it is 4 feet or more deep Trampolines 5,971 because the injury first has to be re- • Stretching and strengthening to prevent shoulder injuries for competitive divers. Hockey 5,272 ported by the athlete (who often toughs it out) and then be diagnosed by an athletic trainer (who may not recognize a concussion). Rugby/lacrosse 4,387 MISCONCEPTION: I wear a mouthguard 14% motor vehicle other traffic 17% Other ball sports 3,935 diving boards, equip- ment, flotation devices, pools, and water slides. While wearing a mouthguard WILL reduce dental injuries, studies have not found that a mouthguard will prevent a concussion. 3,320 Sports-related concussions Roller and inline skating The CDC has no ER code for sports, but it is recognized that sports are causing many of these types of injury. Ice skating 3,115 Source: Robert Cantu, M.D., Boston University and Brigham & Women's Hospital, MomsTeam Wrestling 2,643 Source: CPSC Source: CDC (c) 2010, INFOGRAPHIC WORLD / ZM Graphics Jezper /

Experts Warn that Concussions are a Huge HIdden Threat to Young Athletes

shared by judithgold on Dec 08
This infographic provides a visual to illustrate the damaging effects that concussions have on the brain and the long term effects of brain damage due to concussions. It also provides information for ...


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