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THE WATER SUPPLY CRISIS IN INDONESIA Indonesia is the world's fourth richest country in terms of renewable water. It has 5,886 rivers and 521 natural lakes, meaning a potential of water of 3,906 billion cubic meters a year. However, rapid population growth, urban development and industrialisation have put pressure on the domestic water supply provision. Often, dirty water is discharged virtually untreated. Receiving domestic, industrial and agricultural waste further deteriorates river water quality. TERRITORY 1.9 MILLION KM2 (17,508 islands/6,000 inhabited) Only J6% POPULATION (2008) of the population has access to safe 237.5 MILLION water (2004). THE CHALLENGES INABILITY TO REPLENISH GROUND WATER infiltrates and -10% percolates as Av annual rainfal| ground water. 2,700 MM. Excessive pumping of groundwater has caused the intrusion of seawater and pollutants. If managed properly, 75% of the The remaining flows as runoff total average could be readily available. or surface water. EXTREME CLIMATIC CHANGE Natural disasters caused by abnormal climatic changes (EI Niño, La Niña) can lead to floods and water scarcity. Long drought periods destroyed hundreds of thousands of hectares of paddy rice in 1991, 1994 and 1997. 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 LACK OF UPSTREAM LAND MANAGEMENT Land management without consideration to soil and water conservation tends to create critical lands, causing devastating floods and drought in the lower areas. Indonesia has approximately Due to the high rate of soil erosion, 8 million ha of critical land. water gatherings endure siltation (pollution) and loss of depth. INEFFICIENT IRRIGATION WATER MANAGEMENT 39,000 11,000 UNITS. Malfunctioning facilities and inappropriate irrigation at Of water user associations, only farm level is likely to cause inefficient use of water. In addition, weak water user associations reduce the were functioning properly. effectiveness of water management. 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 INCREASING WATER DEMAND POPULATION GROWTH Because the amount of available water is Water contamination tends to relatively constant, competition among increase alongside population growth agriculture, urban and industrial sectors for and resulting urban developments. the limited resource has become more intense. SUPERMARKET WASTE TREATMENT НOTEL Minimum water consumption to meet basic human needs: 50L/PERSON/DAY Installed production capacity: Present demand Average domestic water consumption in Indonesia (1990): for drinking water: 180,000 110,000 liter/second 01 liter/second 34.2L/PERSON/DAY SEC Learn more about how Toshiba can improve water treatment, sewerage and supply systems at Sources: • The Water Dialogues (http://water • Water Alternatives: Indonesia's Water Supply Regulatory Framework: Between Commercialisation and Public Service ( • Global Water Partnership - Southeast Asia ( • FAO: Land and Water Resources Development in Indonesia ( AA 田 田


shared by daSantosh on Nov 28
Indonesia is the world’s fourth richest country in terms of renewable water. It has 5,886 rivers and 521 natural lakes, meaning a potential of water of 3,906 billion cubic meters a year. However, r...




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