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Water: Cooperation or Competition

Every year We withdraw Water: Cooperation or Competition? Since 3,800 20% In response to the indigenous people's mobilization and protests, a convention was signed between the ministry and the Mazahua movement, 1947 is used in industry cubic km of freshwater there have been The interests of the local 10% on domestic purposes The following factors often lie at the root of water tensions: 300 population were not addressed in this water transfer project, SCARCITY and a whopping but only for rather short-term measures. which did not satisfy their basic needs (access to water and food By 2007, it had declined to 10% of its original size when the demand for water exceeds In 1992, the five countries of the basin - Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, To avoid or resolve 70% production), narrowed their possibilities for development, and had negative impacts on the supply, creating competition between the different water uses water-related conflicts in after the rivers that fed it were against 37 indigenous communities, indigenous people should be involved in the management diverted by Soviet irrigation projects. Impacts include the pollution of surrounding land, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan - formed is used in agriculture their environment. the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination of Central Asia. In 1994, they pledged 1% of their budgets to recover the sea. In 2005, Kazakhstan completed a dam project to replenish the North Aral Sea. In 2008, the water level had risen by 24 m from its lowest level in 2007. of water resources on their lack of fresh water for the NEGLECT OF TREATIES population, health problems, destruction of crops due to soil salinity, and the collapse of the fishing industry. territories and their water when provisions set by international international water agreements conflicts between states over water The Waters of the Mazahua rights, as well as their social agreements over freshwater are questioned or intentionally overlooked by certain parties and cultural values should be recognized. One-third of the water consumed in Mexico City metropolitan area comes from Mazahua indigenous people territories thanks to a 300 km-long system of dams, canals, tunnels, treatment plants and pumps. The Aral Sea disaster However, only Egypt and Sudan are legally entitled to dam the river based on a series of OVER-ABSTRACTION when the permanent or temporary removal of water from rivers, canals, The Nile Basin Initiative The Aral Sea in 1960 launched in 1999 "seeks to develop the river in a cooperative manner, share treaties that have strained I The Aral Sea today In 1960 the Aral Sea was one the four largest lakes in the world with an area of 68,000 Today, salinity has dropped, and fish are again found in sufficient lakes, reservoirs or aquifers for human uses may put the water systems at risk relations in the basin for over 50 years. Today, the shortages of water have prompted countries including Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya to question substantial socioeconomic numbers for some square km. Local fisheries represented annual catches of 40,000 tonnes and the area was surrounded with biologically benefits, and promote regional peace and security". fishing to be viable but vast parts of the Aral Sea have been lost forever. DIVERSION ER-ABSTRACTION But discord over the Nile the treaties. when water from rivers or other V treaties has continued. surface sources is diverted from its Tensions over the Nile River rich marshes and wetlands. course for various purposes through the construction of dams and other infrastructure The Nile river basin is home to over 160 million people and includes ten countries that rely significantly on its Despite tensions, no armed conflict has arisen in the modern EGYPT POLLUTION from diffuse sources (e.g. agriculture, urban areas) as well as point sources era and countries understand that waters, since most have no effective The number of large dams worldwide to 45,000 in 2013 rainfall, but also for fishing and hydroelectricity generation. water is a means for greater cooperation. While a new agreement that satisfies all parties has not been found yet, countries have improved information sharing and scientific and technical cooperation, which is crucial to the sustainability (e.g. municipal sewage and industry) or following an accident has risen from 500 in 1950 of the river. Urban-rural tensions in Zhengzhou, China Lake Victoria There are 276 39% of Zhengzhou's population live in the city and 61% in the surrounding rural area. Groundwater represents about 70% of the water supply, 50% of which is used for agriculture, 31% for industry and 17% for domestic uses. High water scarcity Moderate water scarcity Low water scarcity POLLUTION international river basins and transboundary aquifer systems in the world The Water Convention Groundwater remains of these lack any type of 60% cooperative management framework over-exploited despite attempts to conserve water, and the city competes with Major industrial accidents may cause far-reaching transboundary effects and may lead to accidental water pollution. rural areas for water use. Rural communities feel at a disadvantage especially because they cannot The Convention on the Institutional frameworks are Protection and Use of needed for ministries and generate comparable financial returns. agencies with differing mandates and goals to share Co-management would ensure that more surface water and treated Transboundary Watercourses By 2030 and International Lakes information on the state of (Water Convention) is intended to strengthen national measures for the protection and ecologically sound management of transboundary surface waters and groundwaters. of the world population will be living in areas of high water stress groundwater resources and the impacts of use. 47% wastewater is used for The Convention obliges parties agriculture while urban users have priority over groundwater. Million 2 Tonnes to prevent, control and reduce transboundary impact, use transboundary waters in a reasonable and equitable way and ensure their sustainable management. Initially negotiated as a regional instrument in UNECE region, the Convention was amended in 2003 to allow accession by all the United Nations Every Second the urban population UN WATER 1.6 Billion People Workd Water Day grows. %242.People of sewage and industrial and agricultural waste is discharged into the world's waterways every year by Member States. live in countries with absolute water scarcity International Year of Water Cooperation NEGLECT OF TREATIES DIVERSI SCARCITY

Water: Cooperation or Competition

shared by jimmorgan on Feb 11
To help promote the International Year of Water Cooperation which is launched this week, we created a diagram which explores the main challenges faced by water cooperation today.


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