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Mapping Climate Communication: The Climate Timeline

John Tyndall 1850s identified the greenhouse effect in a laboratory (confirming John Fourier's 1824 discovery) Svante Arrhenius 1890s calculated that emissions from human industry could cause a global warming Guy S. Callendar 1930s found levels of carbon dioxide are climbing and raising global temperature No.1: The Climate Timeline 1960-2014 m 32-15 aba 01. 1960 – 2014 timeline Roger Revelle 1950s Second I PCC report detects signature of human-caused greenhouse effect warming. declares that serious warming is likely in the coming century. Third IPCC report states that global warming, unprecedented since end of last ice age, is 'very likely." with possible severe surprises. Effective end of debate among all but a few demonstrated that C02 levels had increased due to the use of fossil fuels. Fourth IPCC report warns that serious effects of warming have become evident and that Climate Change: A Summary of the Science The Royal Society (UK) International Energy Agency U.S. National Academy of Sciences conference The Causes of Climate Change' in Boulder, USA - 1965 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) The Charney Report ipcc ipc 4th,2007 AR4) report wams of 6° warming scientific events ipcc ipcc 3rd, ipcc by the National Research Council predicts that doubl ing C02 will lead to 3°C warming. USA - 1979 the cost of reducing emissions would be far less than the damage they will cause if not reduced. 2011 COP9 Milan RIO+20 RIO Earth Summit 1992 Charles Keeling 1960s US National Academy warms of political assaults on scientists 2010 Earth United Nations international scientific conference at Villach April 2014 is the first month in human history with average carbon diaxide level in Earth's atmosphere at 400 ppm COP4 Bueonos Aires scienti sts. measured CO fl uctuation in the atmosphere and annual maximum Ist.1990 (FAR) 2010 highest ever yearly increase in global emissions - 5.9% 2003 2nd. 1995 |SAR| Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Al Gore and the IPCC Summit founded November 1988 COP2 Ord,2001 (TAR] th, 2013/14 JARS COP11 Montreal The World Climate Conference produces declaration and appeal to world to prevent man-made changes in cliamte. Geneva 1979 COP15 2012 value steadily rising. 1998 Austria, produces first scientific consensus on global warming 1985 Geneva COP18 2007 NOAA established USA - 1970 First IPCC report says the Earth has been warming and China overtakes USA as world's largest C02 emitter 2007 COP17 Durban COP3 RIO+20 United Nations Conterence on Sustalnable Devolopmont 1996 2005 COP12 COP16 Doha The World Conference on the Changing future warming seems likely. Copenhagen COP7 Marrakech 2001 COP1 COP5 Nairobi Cancun COP20 Kyoto 2012 Atmosphere: Implications for Security Toronto meeting of climate scientists call for a 20% reduction of global CO2 emissions by the year 2005. June 1988 COP8 New Delhi 2011 COP6 La Hague Bonn COP10 Buenos Aires Berlin 2010 Lima 2006 COP13 Bali 2009 Copenhagen conference fails to negotiate binding agreements. COP14 COP19 Kyoto treaty goes into effect, signed by all major industrial nations except US and Australia - 2005 Nicholas Stern claims his report underestimated the gravity of climate change 1997 1999 2002 2014 Obama Climate 1995 2000 Poznan political events US Republican majority eliminates 2004 Warsaw US Environmental Protection Agency deletes section on climate change from a report after the Bush administration's attempts to manipulate scientific consensus. UK government dismantles the Sustainable UK government makes dramatic cuts in the Environment Canadian Imedia coverage wide-spread Stern 2008 government 100,000 people march in the streets of Copenhagen and hold their own People's Climate Assembly, joined by 100s of U.N. delegates. William Nierenberg's report United Nations Framework Kyoto Protocol 2007 the House Committee cuts over 2000 on Global Warming 2013 Climate Protection Act Canadian government creates the Climate Change Plan for Canada Review The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change claims that climate change is "the greatest market failure the world has ever seen", UK - 2006 1972 United Nations Convention on Climate Change scientific jobs and silences scientists Agency (1,700 jobs lost) for National Academy of Sciences claims directs EPA and State to prepare policy options for climate change USA - 1987 James Hansen testifies to Congress Gleneagles Plan President Obama releases the Climate Action Plan including increased use of renewable energy and carbon pollution restrictions for power plants. June 25, 2013 Lyndon Johnson "junk science Representative Joe Barton attacks climate scientist Michael Mann Global Warming effects of climate change will be negligible USA - 1983 Development 2011 First major global climate change treaty (1997) mandatory targets on greenhouse-gas emissions with view to reduce emissions at least 5% below existing 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012. US Senate rejects Kyoto in advance with the hearing in Congress USA -1995 Canadian Commission (UNFCCC) established 1992 government withdraws from Kyoto 2011 message to Congress Conference on the on climate change - 1965 US House Passes Climate Summit in New York in preperation for COP 21 in Paris, 2015. Research Act USA - 1980 G8 The Climate Change Act Senator James Inhofe, Chai rman of Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works, delivers an speech on the Senate floor where he describes climate change as a 'hoax 2003 mass mobilization of the ! Global Day of Action 2009 The principal negotiating for um for global climate issues charged with the task of preventing "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" UK government becomes the first to set binding targets to reduce emission 2008 the 'American Clean Energy and Security Act (2009) - later defeated in Senate CCP15 COPENHAGEN US house of Representatives votes 184-240 against accepting the following resolution: "the scientific finding of the Environmental Protection Agency that climate change is occuring, is cau sed largely by human activities, and poses significant risks to public heath and welfare" Human Environment 23 June 1988 with twelves hearings in Senate and the House on climate change during this period European Union adopts target Berlin Mandate calls for emission targets from developed countries Bush administration abandons Kyoto Protocol and ousts Leak of Republican strategist Frank Luntz memo: "make the lack of scientific certainty a primary issue in the debate" September 2014 Stockholm average global temperatures 1996 Byrd-Hagel resolution, in 95-0 unanimous vote.. IPCC Chair Robert Watson 911 300% increase in climate change lobbyist in the USA (2005 - 2009) - with $90m expenditure The Copenhagen Accord April 2011 350 ppm in 1988 Tar Sands Action: 1,253 protestors arrested at the White House - 2011 ! Occupy movement - 2011 CREDO Pledge of Resistance Intemational Treaty to Protect over 75,000 vow to commit civil the Sacred. Indigenous action disobedience if the Keystone XL on tar sands extraction - 2013 "Largest-ever climate-change march in NYC attended by an World Deve lopment Movement founded London 1970 Friends of the Earth founded. London 1971 Third World Network founded. Malaysia 1984 1st of many Climate Camps in the UK and then globally (2006) Rising Tide North America + Europe founded (2006) Bolivia's chief climate negotiator Angel ica Navarro del ivers speech on climate debt at the UN World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth 30,000 gather in Cochabamba, Bolivia - 2010 climate science Indigenous Environmental Network (IEN) founded 1989 1st Climate Justice Summit in La Hague (2000) Buenos Aires Declaration on the Ethical Dimension of Climate Change !!! Indigenous movement 2012 Idle No More Albuquerque Declaration by IEN sent to COP4 - 1998 !! WTO meeting in Seattle shut down by activists 1999 2002 Bali Principles growth of the climate of Climate Justice protests at G8 Gleneagles Scotland 2005 Transition Towns founded, UK 2006 Climate Justice Now! founded in Bali (2007) Greenpeace founded. Vancouver 1970 David Suzuki Foundation founded 1990 justice movement (BADEDCC) launched at COP10 (2004) climate justice movement pipeline is approved -2013 !!! This Changes Everything: estimated 300k to Capitalism vs. The Climate 400k people - and marchs in cities around the world climate justice World Wildlife Fund (WWF) founded Switzerland 1961 To Really Save the Planet, Stop Going Green by Mike Tidwell rejecting green consumerism Naomi Oreskes' paper in Science on the scienti fic consensus on climate change 2004 The Merchants of Doubt by Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway The Heat is On Billy Parish and others found Time Magazine names The Endangered Earth Man of the Year Toyota introduces Prius in Japan (1997) first mass- market electric hybrid car Newsweek: "The Truth About Denial' cover story, leads to less contrarian media outside Fox News UK Feed-in tarriffs for solar installations approved - 2008 by Naomi Klein 2014 Climate for Cities Ross Gelbspan's book describes fossil fuel industry organizing to prevent a political response to climate change the Energy Action Coalition, organizing youth on climate issues USA Today procla im: "The debate is over: the globe is warming" The Inconvenient Truth Academy Award winning documentary film Vanity Fair: The Green Issue First Earth Day 1970 ecological modernization started 1993 USA - 2003 re-energizes the climate movement - 2006 documents the climate contrarian movement 2010 mobilization of the climate movement Ex-UK Prime Miniter Margaret Thatcher backtracks on her dimate advocacy, calling climate activism a "marvelous excu se for supra-national socialism and praises President George W. Bush for rejecting Kyoto (2003). ----- ---------- ------ ----- ------ EU Emissions trading launches The first carbon emissions trading Clean Development Mechanism opens A key mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol 2006 UN global marketing campaign at Copenhagen, aligns climate objectives with corporate advertising. Hopenhagend becomes a symbol of the corporate Hopenhagen neoliberalism Business Environme ntal Leadership Council founded 1998 UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher is the first major leader to call for action. She delivers a speech at the United Nations and calls for a treaty on climate change by on global trade and emissions. Emissions rise 1% a year in 1990s and then surge to 3.4% a year growth between 2000-2008. NAFTA signed into law 1993. Nafta has a dramatic impact mobilization of uncertainty discourse The rise of 'responsibilitization' discourse wherein responsibility for climate change is considered at an individual level rather than at the level where decisions are made regarding regulation for polluting industry, i.e. govermment policy. Post Rio+20: The United Nations Environment Programe (UNEP) promotes a version of the "green economy" where economic valuation processes are to be used to prove the value of ecosystem services, including climate services, to industry and politicians. vatisation + deregulation 1992 and states that the 'protocols must be binding'. 1989 scheme (EU) implemented. 2005 capture of the climate debate, trends supporting the contrarian agenda "media portrayals of uncertainty have potential to distract as well as impede substantive efforts to reduce GHG emissions as the reduction of uncertainty has long been framed as a prerequisite for political and policy progress" (Boykoff, 2011, pg.64). climate contrarian bias' as 'balance', i.e. the false balance of science vs. opinion / ideology, loss of 2/3 US newspapers with science sections in 2 decades - churnalism consolidation of media changing ownership structure of news sources disinvestment in news reporting, investigative journal ism and science journalism- 25% cut in news industry workforce since 2001 - 2008 - CNN cuts entire science and technology budget in 2008 conforming to the journalistic norm of 'balance' and conflict. Boykoff 2011. ---- ---- ---- US President George H.W. Bush states: "Those who think we are powerless to do anything about The Great Global Warming Swindle Channel 4 (UK) documentary formally criticized by Ofcom, UK broadcasting regulatory agency. 2007 increasing corporate power the 'greenhouse effect' are forgetting about the White House effect" (1990). Over the following years the White House blocks progress on UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992). co2 is Green Climategate No Climate Tax campaign Marshall Institute publishes Global Warming: What Does the Science Tell Us? by Jastrow, Seitz and Nierenberg. 1989 I still believe in Global Warming. States of Fear "Carbon dioxide. They call it pollution. We call it life." disinformation campaign created by The Competitive Enterprise Institute Climate Change: Trick or Treat? (CNN) H9 contrarian events and strategies excerpts from e-mails stolen from Exxon and other fossil fuel interests fund groups to challenge the science behind climate change, One of thes groups, the Global Climate Science Team campaign climate scientists fuel public skepticism by Michael Crichton. A novel that argues that global warming is a scam created by environmentalists Coal ind ustry funded Information Council on the Environment (ICE) launchs a $500,000 campaign aiming to 'reposition global warming as theory (not fact)" Las Vegas Donors Trust founded in 1999. Funding contrarian organizations. Alaska Gov. Sarah The Greening of Planet Earth video produced by Western Fuels argues that more carbon dioxide will be beneficial to humanity. The video is popular with politicians in Washington. 1991 writes a "Draft Global Climate Science Communications Plan" which states: "Victory will be achieved when...average citizens 'understand (recognize) uncertainties in clima te science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of A Skeptical Environmentalist Bjorn Lomborg - 2001. A book which claims that responding to climate change is not supported by adequate scientific data Palin campaigns for US presidency with the slogan Drill, baby, drill' 2008 1st International Conference on Climate Change hosted H1 by Heartland Institute in NYC growth of the contrarian movement Leipzig Declaration (revised) SEPP project opposing the global warming 2005 revised anti-regulation industry lobbying H3 .. Н4 Chicago Heartland Institute billboard campaign (2012) contrarian strategies to gain planetary control is popular with The Keeling Curve The Keeling Curve plots the carbon dioxide in Earth's atmasphere since 1958 NewYork Н5 contestion of scientific consensus by contrarians in Washington and widely The Global Warming Petition contrarian petition also known as the Oregon Petition organized in 1989 and again in 2007 The industry lobby group the "conventional wisdom.". used to dismiss climate change Washington Science & Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) founded by Fred Singer - 1990 Н2 Global Climate Coalition is founded. 1989 1st Nongovernme ntal International Syndey Н6 Leipzig Declaration SEPP project opposing the global warming - 1995 astroturfing + deceptive disinformation George C. Marshall Institute founded by Nierenberg, Seitz and Jastrow (1984) Manhattan Declaration on Climate Washington H7 Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) report published yearly since 2010. ...... 3rd NIPCC 4th NIPCC report 5th NIPCC report Change by the International Climate 2st NIPCC герort H8 Chicago Munich 390 Science Coalition 380 report 370 1960 1970 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2011 2012 2013 2014 350 2004 2009 2010 340 4th peak 5th peak 330 Legend Media Monitoring: 2000-2014 World Newspaper Coverage of 'Climate Change' or 'Global Warming' The Climate Timeline explores the history of climate communication. The work illustrates the temporal growth of various climate discourses by mapping historical processes and events that have lead to different ways of communicating and understanding climate change. Events are color-coded according to the communicative function they serve within five discourses: climate contrarian (red), neoliberalism (dark blue), ecological modernization (light blue), climate justice (green) and climate science itself (grey/black). The timeline also displays how events have influenced media coverage from the year 2000. The media monitoring graph displays media peaks and dips which correspond to the events in the timeline directly above. This poster provides an overview of the major events in climate communication history as well as the forces that obscure and denigrate climate science and climate policy. Mapping a wide variety of activities and events the work serves to clarify the relationship between science, media, policy, civil society and the ideological factors that influence the ways in which climate change is communicated. Discourses This timeline contextualizes events within five discourses. Discourses are shared ways expensive, difficult and even impossible to understanding the world and framing problems. They provide the basic terms for analysis, and also define what is understood as common sense and legitimate knowledge. 2) Climate justice movements see climate Summary Report. The discourses represent positions on climate change motivated by science (or not) greatest impacts are felt by those least and ideology. Mapping discursive positions is a means of exploring different assump- tions and perspectives behind various ways of communicating climate change. The five discourses are described briefly below and in holds that capitalism can never deliver more detail in the Poster Summary Report. Media Monitoring: World News paper Coverage of Climate Change or Global Warming A research group led by Max Boykoff monitors fifty sources across twenty-five countries in seven different regions around the world. We record the number of times the terms 'climate change' or 'global warming' have been used in these sources and publish the results monthly online. Prior to 2004 a much smaller sample of data is available. Details are available on the project website: http://sciencepolicy.colorado edu/icecaps/esearch/media_coverage/index.html How to read this poster Events are situated within five discursive streams and colour 320 8 Discourse Colour Coding Peak coverage in 2009 5 times larger than 2000 5) Climate contrarians have ideol ogical motives behind their critiques of various dimensions of climate science and the policies other tensions as described in the "Theorizing directed at lowering emissions. Typically contrarians challenge what they see as a false consensus in climate science. This discourse is promoted by conservative think tanks, bloggers, media outlets, fossil fuel lobbyists, public relations personnel and some politi- cians, often with financial support from the fossil fuel industry. The radical position, promoted by fossil fuel interests and support- ing think tanks, seeks to continue unrestrained heterogeneity and for this project this category subsumes a variety of green mitigate if action is not taken to dramatically discourses. This done in order to explore these impacts will become increasingly Katrina Sandy 310 coded accordingly. To compare media coverage with events, follow graph at the bottom right to events directly above. The legends display icons and colours used in the timelines. IPCC report climate contrarian 1980 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 ncr 3rd peak 4th peak COP conference" European heat wave neoliberalism reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This poster is the first of a series created for the other conference ecological modernization Discursive Confusion" section of the Poster Mapping Climate Communication project by: climate justice 2nd peak This timeline is the first of a series of posters in the Mapping Climate Communication project. Information on the methodology, theory and references for this work are available in the Poster Summary Report published online 15 October 2014. This project was completed by Dr. Joanna Boehnert during a visiting fellowship at the Center for Science and Technology Policy Research at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder. The views presented in this work and any mistakes are the author's alone. protest / march / direct action O book / report/ academic paper newspaper / magazine article 200 change as an ethical problem wherein the 1st peak in media coverage climate science Dr. Joanna Boehnert CIRES Visiting Research Fellow Center for Science and Technology Policy Research Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado Boulder 4) Neoliberalism: Herein environmental considerations are subordinated to macroeconomic policy "imperatives". Neoliberalism is an ideology that is charac- terized by privatization, deregulation, financialization and austerity. Neoliberal governance simultaneously rolls-back responsibilities of the state and rolls-out market conforming regulatory incursions (Peck, 2010). In practice, neoliberalism seeks to mask these dynamics by presenting itself as environmentally conscientious while avoiding action to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the green rhetoric responsible for greenhouse gas emissions. Advocates demand radical changes to reduce emissions while also addressing issues of social justice and equity. The radical position * movie / TV show / video Media Monitoring Legend 150 O advertising campaign Middle East [email protected] social movement [email protected] Posters can be downloaded with the Poster Summary Report. Available 15 October 2014 on this website: sustainable levels of emission, since this economic model will always prioritize the needs of the market over those of the natural use of the Earth's fossil fuel reserves regard- less of the consequences to the climate. meteorological event Africa 1) Climate science: This discourse emerges from physics, chemistry, atmos- pheric sciences and the earth sciences. The 97% consensus within science (Cook et al., 2013; Anderegg et al. 2000) is that waming of the atmosphere and ocean system is unequivocal, associated impacts are occur- ring at rates unprecedented in the historical record and that these changes are predomi- nately due to human influence. Climate change presents severe risks to civilization and to the non-human natural world and milestone 100 The Climate Timeline visualizes the historical processes and events that have lead to the growth of various ways of communicating climate change. This work aims to reveal discursive obfuscations by highlighting both what was said and what was done in regard to climate change. It explores the impact of neoliberalism on climate change communication and opens discursive space for the climate justice discourse. world. New ways of organizing social rela- tions and the political economy must be created to respond to climate change. Oceania act/ mandate / protocol * trend or strategy South America declaration 3) Ecological modernization holds that climate change can be addressed within the current capitalist system and that low emis- sions and economic benefits can be achieved regulation enables corporate power grabs with market mechanisms, clean energy and other innovative solutions to climate change. to regulate and monitor polluting industrial Within this discourse there is much there is a symbiosis between this and the contrarian discourse, since the lack of North America 50 key statement or speech CENTER FOR founding of a new organization Europe C7 University of Colorado Boulder SCIENCEXTECHNOLOGY and weakens capacities in the public sphere CIRES * COP. Cantererce of the Partiem, yady Unitad Nations canferance * induding HI, H2 etc: Heartand institute's contrarian conference POLICY RESEARCH activities. Asia 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 discourses Carbon dioxide concentration (ppmv]

Mapping Climate Communication: The Climate Timeline

shared by JBoehnert on Oct 17
The Climate Timeline illustrates the temporal growth of climate communication by mapping historical processes and events that have lead to various ways of understanding climate change. Actors and even...





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