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Emerald Ash Borer

Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Eggs Emerald Ash Borer Life Cycle EMERALD ASH BORER BIG PROBLEM Mating and Eggs Adult females mate and lay eggs soon after they emerge in late May and contin- ues through mid-summer. Mating Larvae A LITTLE PEST IS A EAB REQUIRES ONLY THEIR HOST TREES, NATIVE ASH. IN NATURAL FOREST SETTINGS Females deposit eggs individually on bark surface or in bark crevices. FOR THEIR LARVAE TO FEED ON THE BARK TISSUE, EFFECTIVELY GIRDLING THE TREE. EAB HAS KILLED TENS OF MILLIONS OF TREES IN THE U.S. Each female lays about 75 eggs during her lifetime. Eggs hatch in 7 to 10 days into worm-like larvae. Adult Pupae The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a member of nsects called metallic wood-boring beetles. Adults are a brilliant metallic green color. The dorsal side of the abdomen, which can be seen when the wings are spread, is a metallic purplish-red. Larvae chew through the outer bark to feed on the ash trees' inner bark as they grow. Growing larvae zigzag through this delicate tree tissue as they feed, forming S-shaped tunnels that are flat and wide and can extend from 4 to 20 inches. These tunnels are packed with sawdust like excrement, stopping the flow of nutrients to the tree. Larval feeding ends in autumn and they overwinter as pre-pupae. The Spread Emerald ash borers fly less than 1/2 mile from the tree they emerged from. The spread of infestation is assumed to be about 2 miles or less per year. The rapid spread of the beetle is most likely due to the transport of infested firewood, nursery stock, unprocessed logs, and other ash products. Natural Enemies of EAB Regulatory agencies have determined EAB eradica- tion efforts ineffective and quarantine compli- ance incomplete. Land managers seeking methods such as biologi- cal and microbial control for managing EAB popu- lations. In EAB native Impacts of the Emerald Ash Borer In the early stages of an invasion, Emerald Ash Borers are more attracted to stressed ash trees than to healthy ones. However, once EAB is established in an area, all are susceptible to attack. EAB infestation is fatal to ash trees, even healthy ones, in approximately 2 to 4 years. Braconid Wasp Pupae When warmer weather arrives, larvae enter the pupal stage, transforming from larvae into sexually mature adults at which time they emerge headfirst through a distinctive 1/8 inch to 1/6 inch D-shaped are now sustainable EAB kills ash trees when the larvae galleries in the phloem become so extensive that they prevent the flow of nutrients and water throughout the tree. This "girdling" of the tree starves all parts of the tree beyond the galleries, killing the tree from the top down. exit hole. countries it is considered Pilose Checkered Beetle a minor and periodic pest so minimal literature was available. research Adults Slnce 2002 has been Adults live about 20 days. They feed lightly on ash leaves, but not enough to cause real In natural forest settings, native ash trees make up almost 8% of all trees and 10% of all hardwood forests, providing habitat and a food source for both birds and mammals. Ash tree needs full sun and damp, fertile soil to damage. conducted to find natural ememies, predaceous and parasitic insects, fungi and beetle eating animals such as woodpeckers. including thrive. RONTMOVE FIREWOOD Downy Woodpeckers Where the Ash Grows While Ash trees can be found around the world, they are most predominant in the United States, particularly in: New England, New York, Massachusetts, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Oregon, Kansas and Colorado. The Ash tree is a large decidu- ous tree (looses it's leaves) flowering April to May It can live up to 400 years and maybe more. Infestation The beetle's were first confirmed in Michigan and Windsor, Ontario beetle introduced to the area in the early to mid 1990's as Ash wood used for Slowing the spread of EAB is crucial to give adequate time to prepare manage- ment plans and budget for the costs of implementation. Wildlife value Native Ranch Ash supports many species of insects and hole nesting birds such as owls and woodpeckers. An ash woodland has a light open canopy which encourages a rich ground flora and a Eastern Russia southeast Korea Mongolia Northern China in 2002. The likely was Homeowners purchase and burn firewood harvested and should Bark is pale grey and fissures with age. Japan campers China healthy understory. from forests within 50 miles of their home The alkaline bark of ash supports epiphytic lichens, bryophytes and also attracts snails. Its leaves provide food for many moth species and birds such as the bullfinch who eats the ash seeds. smooth with Twigs are obvious black, velvety buds. shipping pallets on cargo ships or shipping contain- Taiwan or camp. ers. Items quareentined and should not be taken out of the local area • Ash nursery stock. • Any part of ash trees, bark, stumps, Infestation Ranch Leaves are compound, and made up of three to six pairs of oval, pointed, toothed leaflets with one leaflet. The leaves are in oppo- site pairs. Since its introduction into 45 ft North America, EAB has spread into 15 states and Ontario and Quebec. terminal limbs, branches, and roots. • Firewood from any species (both soft species and hard species). • Wood chips and bark mulch from any tree species, larger than 1 inch in two dimensions. • Living Emerald Ash Borer in any stage of development. Commercial Asset 2002 Ash trees are widely used as an urban and suburban street tree. They are used for flooring, furniture, plywood and shipping pallets, as well as baseball bats, hockey sticks, canoe paddles, and tool handles. Ash is also a good quality firewood. Flowers male and female flowers can Ash is dioecious: be found on different trees, or a single tree can be mixed with male and female flowers on different branches. Design credit: Almost 114 million board feet of ash lumber Sources: Seeds mature Aug-Sept and fall from the tree between Snodgrass Design, is grown annually in the eastern U.S. worth about $25 billion. winter and early spring. Photo credits: Art Wagner, David R. McKay & Kenneth R. Law - USA APHIS PPQ University of Georgia Debbie Miler, & Leah Bauer - USDA Forest Service, Bugwoodorg University of Georgia 114,000,000 bd ft = $25,000,000,000 Common ash Fraxinus excelsior David Cappaert & Howard Russell - Michigan State University, Bugwoodorg University of Georgia Jared Spokowsky - Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Bugwoodorg University of Georgia

Emerald Ash Borer

shared by ric on Jul 16
The Emerald Ash Borer is an invasive species that has devastated Ash trees through out the midwest


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