Transcript

Displacements Due to Natural Disasters

DISPLACEMENTS DUE TO NATURAL DISASTERS SPENDING AND SOLUTIONS Last year, natural disasters displaced 22 million people around the world. Floods, hurricanes, tornados, droughts and other hazards displaced three times more people than war. This trend is supposed to rise as the population grows and more people live and work in hazard prone areas. PEOPLE DISPLACED BY NATURAL DISASTERS (GLOBALLY) Global Displacements: 2x the number of people since the 1970s 2008–2013: 150+ million people displaced in 160 countries 2010: 90% of displacements (42+ million) linked to climate change 2013: 22 million people fled homes due to typhoons, flooding, earthquakes 2013: Only 7-8 million people moved due to war or related conflict Average: 27 million displaced by natural disaster per decade FLOODS AND STORMS 80% of weather-induced displacements account for over 7 WHY: SCIENTISTS BLAME URBANIZATION, NOT NATURAL DISASTERS - Cities and mega-cities attract temporary dwellers in "tent cities" - Mudslides and flooding linked to poorly built shelters/shacks located near water (beaches, deltas, riverbeds) · Early warning systems improve death rates but not livelihood Numerical Growth since 1970OS 96% growth of global populace 187% growth of urban populace overall 326% growth of urban dwellers in developing countries OPPOSITE VIEW OF 'WHY': CLIMATE CHANGE - Over last 20 years, natural disasters have doubled average - from 200/year to 400+/year - Land salinization, natural destruction or shrinking island states (due to rising seawater) move people toward urban areas MOST DISPLACED PEOPLE Countries with highest displacement levels: Bangladesh India • Vietnam China • Philippines ASIA 87% of all displaced people, especially in mega-cities MOSTLY SUDDEN ONSET EARTHQUAKES FLOODS WINDSTORMS VOLCANDES SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (slow onset effect of drought, encroaching sea levels) • Afghanistan • Niger Sudan Chad • Somalia • Uganda 2013 Chad | Niger | Sudan | South Sudan Rainy season floods accounted for five largest displacements AMERICAS (MEXICO, U.S.,CANADA) CANADA 2013 218,000 AMERICA Oklahoma residents affected by tornadoes 120,000 Alberta residents washed out by floods MEXICO 2012: Hurricane Sandy displaced people in Cuba and U.S. WORST NATURAL DISASTERS BY TYPE/AFFECTED PEOPLE 5.8 MILLION | TYPHOON + EARTHQUAKE TOTAL DISPLACED IN PHILIPPINES IN 2013 1.7 MILLION | TRAMI ТҮРНОON 4.1 MILLION | WPHOON 350,000 pHO HAIYAN EARTHQUAKE TOTAL DISPLACED 6,340 DEAD TOTAL DISPLACED TOTAL DISPLACED COSTS RELATED TO NATURAL DISASTERS TYPES OF LOSSES DIRECT 2$ ASSETS INCOME BUILDINGS PEOPLE BRIDGES ROADS PLUMBING INDIRECT TOURISM TAXES LABOR SANITATION INSURANCE PAST- 2011 2012 2013 $360 BILLION SI60 BILLION $192 BILLION FOR 336 NATURAL DISASTERS FOR 310 MEDIUM-SIZE DISASTERS ABOVE AVERAGE YEAR CENTRAL EUROPE, CANADA, CHINA Imbalanced impact: Fewer but larger scale disasters hit developed countries UNITED STATES (Floods, 192 dead, $44 billion) (Hurricane Sandy, 131 dead) $20 - $50 billion CHINA Most affected (Drought in Midwest region) (Earthquake, 196 dead, $14 billion) $20 billion AUSTRALIA SOUTHEAST ASIA (Queensland flood, $38 billion) PHILIPPINES (Typhoon Haiyan, 8,000 dead, $14.5 billion) JAPAN (Typhoon Bopha, 1,900 dead) $944 million CHINA & JAPAN (Tsunami, $203 billion) (Typhoon Fitow, 8 dead, $11 billion) SOUTH PACIFIC ISLANDS NEW ZEALAND (Cyclone Evan, 14 dead) $140 million CHINA & BRAZIL (Christchurch earthquake, $17 billion) (Drought, $18.5 billion) PRESENT $41 BILLION LOST | 4,700 DEAD 20 14 $19 BILLION IN INSURANCE LOSSES 1 SZ.6 BILLION $2.5 BILLION $4.5 BILLION FIRST SIX MONTHS U.S. | HAIL & THUNDERSTORMS EUROPE | STORM ELA BOSNIA & SERBIA | FLOODING GOVERNMENT FUNDING | DISASTER PREPARATION VS. DISASTER RESPONSE $1 2% SPENT ON PREPARATION SAVES $3 TO $7 IN RESPONSE EVERY EUROPE + WEALTHIEST 23 COUNTRIES SPENT IN "HUMANITARIAN SPENDING IN DISASTER PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS" (OUT OF RECOMMENDED 10%) 13.8 BILLION ш GOVERNMENTS SPENT ON RESPONSE | $532 MILLION ON PREVENTION/PREPARATION AVERAGE SPENDING ON DISASTER PREVENTION/PREPAREDNESS (DPP): 5% OR LESS AUSTRALIA 19% NORWAY 12% JAPAN 10% UNITED STATES L70 UNITED KINGDOM Z70 SOLUTION | PREVENT FUTURE DISPLACEMENTS RELATED TO NATURAL DISASTERS IMPROVE EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEMS USE IDMC TOOL FOR ESTIMATING RESPONSES TO DROUGHT-RELATED DISPLACEMENT (i.e., investment effectiveness applied in various demographics and climates) ADDRESS POPULATION GROWTH: GOVERNMENT WORK • Efficient use of land: Review, revise or enforce building regulations and urban planning • Economic factors: Improve living conditions in temporary shelter zones and review poverty-related factors • Policies: Draft strategic plan for managing disasters and contingencies ADDRESS WEATHER CONCERNS AND DISASTER EFFECTS • Help communities adapt: Adopt early warning systems and planned evacuation strategies • Infrastructure preparation: Flood defense maintenance, better building standards, earthquake-resistant highways • Data collection: Better quality, more measurement • Disaster Relief: Prepare emergency kits for relocation and recovery, develop cash-based work programs, open "no dwelling zones" Sources http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/17/natural-disasters-refugee-people-war-2013-study http://www.ibtimes.com/natural-disasters-displace-more-people-conflict-trend-direct-result-urbanization-1690745 http://www.brookings.edu/-/media/events/2014/04/09%20natural%20disasters/20140409_disasters_displacement_transcript.pdf http://www.unhcr.org/4901e81a4.html http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/201409-global-estimates.pdf http://www.redcross.org.au/files/Media_Release_World Disaster_Report_-_Oct12.pdf http://www.claimsjournal.com/newslinternational/2013/01/08/220375.htm http://www.brookings.edu/-/media/Research/Files/Reports/2013/03/natural%20disasters%20reviewBrookings_Review_Natural_Disasters_2012.pdf http://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/aug/27/global-insurance-industry-covers-21 bn-losses http://www.ibtimes.com/report-ten-most-expensive-natural-disasters-2013-1540058 http://www.trust.org/spotlight/disaster-risk-reduction/ https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/showlsingle/en/6420-Chinese-cities-will-take-a-decade-to-catch-up-on-flood-risk http://www.globalhumanitarianassistance.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/GHA-Report-2013.pdf EKU ONLINE г.О

Displacements Due to Natural Disasters

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Dangerous worldwide environmental disasters put millions of people at risk every year. Events that can range from floods to tornadoes are known to devastate entire cities and landscapes, and often lea...

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