Transcript

Cereal Killers

300.1* CEREAL KILLERS Indian Agriculture v/s The Insects The unceasing struggle between man and his insect enemies started even before the dawn of civilization. Inspite of the numerous advances made by man in evolving newer and deadlier weapons to fight the war against insects, the insects have still prevailed and evolved with the weopons to reign supreme. india's position in farm output in the world 20% 218 million tonnes total food grain production per anum 18% lost due to insect pests every year 9,040 crores 2010 budget for Ministry of Agriculture 29,000 crores lost due to insect pests every year 3,105 crores spent on pesticides every year 93.1* 71.8* 25% 5% production damage * million tonnes 6.9* 10.1 6.9* 25% 5.3* 5* 15% 10% 30% 50% Groundnut Rice Sugarcane Maize Cotton Chickpea Wheat Mustard Yellow Stem Borer Scirpophaga incertulas Spotted Stalk Borer American Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Diamond Moth Chilo partelus Freshly hatched larvae hang from leaves with salival threads and disperse to neighboring plants by wind, nibble inside the leaf sheath and soon bore in to stem Injure the maize plant by eating its leaves, tunnelling within the stalk, disrupting the flow of nutrients and finally killing it Their voracious caterpillars show a strong preference for reproductive organs such as buds, berries and pods. They bore into these parts, leaving large, round holes Scipophaga incertukas Feeds in the spongy plant tissue beneath the leaf surface forming shallow mines that appear as numerous white marks. It eats up all the leaf tissue, leaving just the veins Red Hairy Caterpillar Pyrilla Epiricania melanoleuca Spotted Bollworm Ghujia Weevil Scirpophaga incertulas Earias vittella Tanymecus indicus They migrate in groups from field to field feeding voraciously on the crops that come across on their way, giving them a grazed appearance The most destructive foliage sucking pest of sugarcane. It exudes a sweet sticky fluid known as honeydew, which caterpillars of the pest not only bore the bolls but also attack the shoots, buds and flowers. The infested bolls open prematurely and produce poor lint A soil pest. It attacks germinating seedlings. As a result of its heavy infestation the plants eventually die out promotes quick and luxuriant growth of fungus The Exterminators Pesticides Biotechnology Trap Cropping Pheramone Traps UV Absorption Enemy Insects Enemy insescts can be a very effective method to control the pest insect population Genetically altering the crop to make it Other plants are used to distract insects from the main crop Lure insects into traps by replicating the scent of the opposite sex Enemy insescts can be a very effective method to control the pest insect population Sheets around the cultivated area absorb insect resistant UV radiation from plants making them invisible to the insect eye Parasites Stingers Predators Paralyze and store the insects for the nourishment Live as larvae within the Eat the insects themselves bodies of their hosts. Some times one may become the host of another of their young pratyush gupta Based on the M.S.P. fixed by Govt. of India for 2001-02. Production & MSP figures from Anonymous (2003) pratyush89@ gmail.com SOURCES Applied Entamology: Insecticidal Methods of Pest Control, Dileep K. Singh | Indian Insect Pests, H Maxwell Leroy | www.commodityindia.com | www.krishiworld.com | www.cropscience.org.au | www.ncap.res. in | wikipedia.com 2. --<>

Cereal Killers

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Indian Agriculture v/s The Insects.

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