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The Underdogs: Living History

THE UNDERDOGS LIVING HISTORY Los de abajo, Mariano Azuela's fictionalized account of the Mexican Civil War, turns First published serially in a newspaper and based on Azuela's own experiences as a doctor and combatant on the field, the novella later became known as an important work of social protest. It has been newly translated for its centennial as The Underdogs by Ilan Stavans and Anna More. To better understand the story's context, 100 this year. here are some key facts and figures about la Revolución Mexicana (1910-ca. 1920). PRESIDENTS of MEXICO during the REVOLUTION 1875 PORFIRIO DIAZ Initially a Liberal, Diaz imposed order and protected the interests of the Catholic Church and landed elite. After decades running unopposed, he 1880.. announced free elections for 1910, but then rigged the results. Madero deposed Diaz, who went into exile. Manuel González, 31st President, inaugurated a railroad and national bank Ruled 1876-1880 1884-1911 Autocratic * DEATH: Peaceful 1885 .. FRANCISCO MADERO Enacted modest social reforms, but lost the support of his allies Pancho Villa (in the North) and Emiliano Zapata (in the South) and was deposed by Victoriano Huerta. 1890.. F DEATH: Firing squad Ruled 1911-1913 O National budget first Progressive balanced VICTORIANO HUERTA 1895 Commander of the Mexican Army, he imposed a harsh dictatorship after removing Madero from power. Fought democratic forces such as Carranza's Competed in i modern Olympics for first time Constitutionalist Army and the more 1900 .. radical Conventionalist forces of Villa Ruled 1913-1914 and Zapata. Conservative O DEATH: Jaundice in a U.S. prison 1905 .. VENUSTIANO CARRANZA Introduced several liberal reforms, but spent most of his regime battling Villa and Zapata's armies. Carranza prepared to retire in 1920 but decided first to undermine Obregón. This led to renewed civil war as Obregón drove Carranza from the capital. Third largest oil producer 1910 .. Ruled 1914-1920 Liberal E DEATH: Assassinated by Obregón supporter or committed suicide 1915 .. ÁLVARO OBREGÓN A former corps commander in Carranza's Constitutionalist and army Minister of War in his government, Obregón won the 1920 election. He extended education, built libraries, 1920 .. 300,000 die of 1918 Spanish Flu improved labor relations, and introduced land reform. Ruled 1920-1924 Liberal E DEATH: Assassinated by a Catholic extremist 1925 - FOUR STATES that produced REBELS Home to Francisco CHIHUAHUA "Pancho" Villa, chieftan SONORA and former bandit who surrendered in 1920 COAHUILA Home to Francisco Home to Álvaro Obregón, military and political strategist who became president in 1920 Madero, political rallying point for democracy, and Venustiano Carranza, state MORELOS governor turned rebel Home to Emiliano Zapata, peasant turned agitator for reform of feudal system, who was assassinated in 1919 SOLDIERS of the REVOLUTION Gorrudos: male soldiers who wore wide-brimmed "To the sierra!" straw hats Weapons horses, hand grenades, machine guns, pistols, Soldaderas women soldiers, some of whom even served swords, machetes Death toll estimated as officers among the Zapatistas 1-2 million Rifles Who won Mexican model 1902 rifle and Beverages beer, tequila, champagne the Revolution? 1910 Mauser rifle "Forget all your fears." Venustiano Carranza, who conquered with 100,000 soldiers NORTONLITERATURE.COM @NORTONCRITICALS NORTON X WWNORTON.COM/NORTONCRITICALS CRITICAL EDITIONS © 2014 W. W. Norton & Company Images courtesy of Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C., and istockphoto.com .......... U

The Underdogs: Living History

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Los de abajo, Mariano Azuela’s fictionalized account of the Mexican Civil War, turns 100 this year. First published serially in a newspaper and based on Azuela’s own experiences as a doctor and co...

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