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Promoting University-Industry Collaboration in Developing Countries

PROMOTING UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATIONO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES An Overview from the Innovation Policy Platform Successful collaboration between universities and industry can lead to greater innovation and help spur a country's economic development. The exchange of technical skills, knowledge, and resources can be mutually beneficial for both science and industry. & 00 UNIVERSITY INDUSTRY COLLABORATION INNOVATION ECONOMIC GROWTH But building strong links between academia and industry requires policy that supports cross-sector collaboration and helps participants overcome obstacles, especially in developing countries. WHAT ARE THE THREE CATEGORIES OF UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION? ДЛ Mobility Relationships Transfer TRANSFER Research Partnerships Arrangements for joint projects Academic Entrepreneurship Start-up or spin-off companies created by academics Commercialization of Intellectual Property Licensing of university-generated intellectual property to firms Research Services Research-related activities commissioned to universities Human Resource Exchange Cross-sector training, internships and hiring Scientific Publications Use of codified scientific by industrial clients knowledge within industry Shared Infrastructure Informal Interaction Shared use of university labs and equipment Formation of social relationships through conferences, meetings and social networks WHAT ARE THE DRIVERS AND BARRIERS TO UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION? O Industry Universities Drivers Barriers KNOWLEDGE RESEARCH ORIENTATIONS Access to the skills and knowledge developed by universites Focus on obtaining fast, commercial results vs. Access to industry's empirical data and entrepreneurial expertise Focus on basic research EMPLOYMENT OUTPUTS A more skilled applicant pool from which to hire Goal of quickly obtaining patents for new products vs. New opportunities for student internships and employment Goal of publishing research results ECONOMICS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Concern about maintaining secrecy in order to control intellectual property rights and expectations about a new commercial product New patents and more efficient processes Greater funding and recognition vs. No major concern about secrecy WHAT ARE THE PRIORITIES FOR UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT? MOST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES | Industry participation in graduate programs ! Joint university-industry supervision of PhD programs | Research consortia and long-term research partnerships | Spin-off companies, patent licensing | Entrepreneurship education | Curricula development to improve undergraduate and graduate studies LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES Student internships | Building absorptive capacity to adopt and diffuse already existing technologies | Focus on appropriate technologies to respond to local needs Business incubation services Entrepreneurship education CARROTS: INCENTIVES TO COLLABORATE CARROTS COLLABORATION Policy Tools for Promoting Collaboration Positive Incentives Success INCENTIVES TO COLLABORATE POTENTIAL RISKS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Governments offer companies grants, matching grants, and tax incentives to participate in collaborative research projects. In developing countries, firms may show little interest in applying for grants because they don't have matching resources or find the process too complex. 'Innovation Vouchers' offering small lines of credit to firms to purchase services from universities have been successful in Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Universities do not provide incentives for academics to align research agendas with market demands. . 000 CONDITIONAL FUNDING FOR UNIVERSITIES Governments can develop new criteria for funding public universities, such as the number of start-ups and industry contracts they generate. Funding for public universities is often based on traditional metrics like the number of students or publications. Universities may offer faculty members funding for research and development, sabbaticals to launch research-based start-ups, and promotions and recognition for industry connections. Excessive bureaucracy and bans on creating private organizations at public universities can get in the way of industry participation. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (R Researchers in many OECD countries have blanket permission to file for patents for research products and give those patent licenses to private firms. (R Technology Transfer Offices inside universities can assist researchers in patenting their findings and obtaining license fees and royalties. The results of intellectual property reform in countries with low technological capacities and low levels of innovation can be disappointing. SCIENCE PARKS Science parks are physical spaces created for high-tech, innovation-centered collaboration between universities These ambitious endeavors can become little more 00 and industry. They often include business incubators intended to support spin-off and start-up companies. than unsustainable real estate players. Many science parks in middle- and low- income countries have failed, including several in China. EDUCATION & TRAINING 188 It can benefit both industry and universities to support DGIID internship programs and allow PhD students to conduct research in outside firms. Industry will not be able to recruit graduates with the skills they need unless they work with universities to create their curricula. In Chile, many PhD students who were offered scholarships to conduct research in outside firms gained long-term employment. GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS Collaborations between local industry and foreign universities with greater research qualifications can help modernize local technology and processes. Foreign universities sometimes take up government and foreign funding and crowd out local universities. 000 For more policy research and tools, visit OECD The Innovation THE WORLD BANK Policy Platform BETTER POLICIES FOR BETTER LIVES CAPACITIES II INNOVATION ---=---

Promoting University-Industry Collaboration in Developing Countries

shared by worldbank on Mar 14
Successful collaboration between universities and industry can lead to greater innovation and help spur a country's economic development. The exchange of technical skills, knowledge, and resources can...


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