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History of Philosophy

HISTORY PHILOSOPHY ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY STEMMING FROM AGREEMENT From Eastern & Western Greece STEMMING FROM REJECTION 6th Century BCE – 529 CE* PRESOCRATICS Physics, Mathematics, Astronomy, Biology Predecessor Student *Before Common Era & Common Era IONIAN PHILOSOPHERS (640 – 475 BCE) PYTHAGORREANS Sought the principle of things, & the mode of their origin and disappearance. (582 BCE – 5th century BCE) Gave philosophy its name: "love of wisdom" Thales of Anaximander Anaximes Hericlitus of Miletus Mathematics, Mysticism, Science of Miletus Ephasus Pythagoras Damon of Samos ELEATIC PHILOSOPHERS (570 BCE – 5th century BCE) ATOMISTS (5th century BCE) Xenophanes Parmenides of Colophon of Elea Zeno of Elea Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (500 BCE) Empedodles of Agrigentum (492 BCE) Leucippus Democritus Metaphysics, Relationship between change & eternal unity Believed in the doctrine of atoms, or small primary bodies infinite in number, indivisible & imperishable OLDER SOPHISTS (5th century BCE – 375 BCE) GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENIAN PHILOSOPHY From Central Greece Protagoras Gorgias Hippias Prodicus PLATONISM (469 BCE) Grammar, Relativity, Agnosticism (469 – Present day) The theory of forms, as well as a threefold division of philosophy into dialectic, ethics, & physics. Socrates Plato STOICS Aristotle Works scientifically from the particular to the universal. Philosophy as science. Ethics. (310 – 180 AD) EPICUREANISM Zeno of Citium Cleanthes of Chrysippus Assos of Soli (342 – BCE) PYRRHONIAN SKEPTICISM CONTINUES IN ANCIENT ROME Followers (365 BCE) Practical application of previous thought. Virtue is good, vice is bad, everything else in the world is indifferent. Epicurus CONTINUES IN ANCIENT ROME & THE RENAISSANCE Phyro Arcesilaus & Carneades Timon Belief in atoms, materialistic metaphysics, empiricist epistemology, hedonistic ethics CONTINUES IN ROMAN EMPIRE NEOPLATONISM Skepticism, or the suspension of judgement on things (205 CE) Disciples ECLECTICISM (155 BCE) CONTINUES IN ROMAN EMPIRE Plotinus of Porphyry Lycopolis Proclus Justinian forbids teaching of philosophy at Athens (529 CE) A fusion of Greek philosophy and eastern religion Septuagint. Sought to right relations between God and humans. Sought truth to the highest degree of possibility, fusing skeptical doubt with other school's search for truth. Antiochus of Ascalon Carneades Panaetius ROMAN PHILOSOPHY SKEPTICISM EPICUREANISM (155 BCE – 525 CE) MANY GREEK SCHOOLS CONTINUED Many Roman philosophers tried to make philosophy accessible even to those outside of learned circles. Sextus Lucretius Empiricus ECLECTICISM PYTHAGOREANISM STOICISM Marcus Aurelius Seneca the Cornutus Apuleius of Madaura Cicero Younger Nigidius Figulus NEW INFLUENCE EARLY CHRISTIAN THOUGHT Christianity decriminalized in Rome. (313 CE) (100 – 525 CE) Fleshing out of basic Christian concepts. The soul, the trinity, and justifying Christian views of science Origen Athanasius of Saint Pseudo-Dionysius Alexandria Augustine the Areopagite Justin Tertullian Saint Clement of Martyr Irenaeus Alexandria and history. THE MIDDLE AGES (5th century – 16th century CE) Classic philosophy was blended with Christian thought or forgotten. CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE NEOPLATONISM SCHOLASTICISM (475-526 CE) (1100-1700) Use of logic, dialectic, and analysis techniques of ancient thinkers to explore theological issues and defend dogma. Boethius Anselm of Peter Thomas John Duns William of Platonic reverence of reason and truth coupled with Christian allegories. Canterbury Abelard Aquinas Scotus Ockham THE RENAISSANCE ARISTOTELIANISM (14th-17th century) SCIENTIFIC &SECULAR ARISTOTELIANS AVERROISM (1462-1589) (1429-1538) A scientific look at the intellect as part of the body, development of logic and scientific method. Pietro Jacopo Paul of Alessandro Elijah del Nicoletto Pomponazzi Zabarella Agostino Nifo Venice Achillini Medigo Vernia SOCIETY OF JESUS Immortality of the soul as justified in Aristotelian texts and (1492-1617) Apply Aristotle to metaphysics and philosophy of law. Laid foundation for the law of commentaries. Francisco de Vitoria Francisco de Toledo Pedro Francisco da Fonseca Suarez nations and the just war theory. HUMANISM (1304-1536) Leonardo Poggio Niccolo Machiavelli Francesco Coluccio Lorenzo Rudolph Agricola Juan Luis Petrus Desiderius Erasmus Mario Petrarca Salutati Bruni Bracciolini Valla Nizolio Vives Ramus Heightened emphasis on moral philosophy, reform, and the good life instead of purely scholastic Aristotelianism. PLATONISM (1360-1547) Recovered Platonic and neoplatonic texts mixed with humanism to provide a new framework through which philosophy led one closer to God. George Gemistos Pietro Bembo Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa Judah ben Isaac Abravanel Marsilio Giovanni Bessarion Pico della Mirandola Ficino Plethon HELLENISTIC PHILOSOPHIES STOICISM (1304-1606) EPICUREANISM Man is responsible for his happiness. The scholarly life and ethical perfection are one, stoicisms ability to work as therapy against distress. (1417-1481) Pleasure consists in pleasure of both the body and mind. Christian pleasure can be good and better than pagan good. Francesco Petrarca Justus Lipsius Francesco Cosma Poggio Bracciolini Filelfo Raimondi SKEPTICISM (1469-1623) NEW NATURAL PHILOSOPHIES (1473-1639) Giovanni Agrippa von Pico della Nettesheim Montaigne Michel de Francisco Sanches Giordano Bruno Nicolaus Bernardino Francesco Tommaso Mirandola Copernicus Telesio Patrizi Campanella The unreliability of the senses and the inability to justify what is knowledge. Used for attacks on paganism, science, and Aristotelianism. Rejection of Aristotelian science and attempts at a more honest scientific inquiry into the natural world. MODERN PHILOSOPHY RATIONALISTS (17th century-20th century) (1596-1716) EMPIRICISTS (1632-1776) Theories of knowledge should be grounded in experience and physical evidence. Sensory perception is involved in the formation of ideas, Rene Baruch Nicolas Gottlieb Descartes Spinoza Malebranche Leibniz A response to scholasticism through skepticism. Ordinary methods of science and reasoning are fallible but not false. John Locke David George Berkeley rather than innate notions. Hume POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY (1588-1895) Rethought the need for political structures, discussed what makes a government good, what rights and freedoms we have, and what duties citizens have. Thomas Hobbes John James Friedrich Jean-Jacques Jeremy Rousseau John Stuart Karl Locke Bentham Mill Mill Marx Engels GERMAN IDEALISM (1724-1924) Related to skepticism in the assertion that reality is but a construct of our mind, and probably immaterial. George W. Friedrich W. Friedrich Joseph Hegel Schelling Immanuel Johann Arthur Francis Schopenhauer Herbert Bradley Kant Gottlieb Fichte EXISTENTIALISTS (1813-1980) PRAGMATISM (1839-2007) Jean-Paul Friedrich Kierkegaard Wilhelm Nietzsche Soren Karl Gabriel Martin Jaspers Marcel Heidegger Sartre Charles Sanders Peirce James Experiences of the individual are central. Moral and scientific thinking are not enough, a further set of categories based on authenticity is necessary. William John Richard Dewey Rorty The function of thought is not to describe, represent or mirror reality, instead thought is a tool for prediction, action, and problem solving. PHENOMENOLOGY (1859-1961) ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY (1848-1970) Edmund Husserl Martin Maurice Heidegger Merleau-Ponty Creating a scientific and objective-centered method for looking at topics normally regarded as subjective. Namely, our experiences and consciousness. Bertrand Russell Gottlob George Edward Ludwig Carnap Wittgenstein Moritz Rudolf Frege Schlick Moore Emphasis on darity, formal logic, analysis of language, and the natural sciences. ORDINARY LANGUAGE PHILOSOPHY (1889-1976) Push to eschew traditional philosophical theories. Belief that traditional philosophical programs are rooted in linguistic mistakes committed by philosophers. Remedied by the way words are used in everyday use. Ludwig Wittgenstein Gilbert Ryle J.L. Austin CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY MYRIAD TYPES PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE ANALYTIC EPISTEMOLOGY AESTHETICS METAPHYSICS POST-STRUCTURALISTS POSTANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY (1901-2009) (1908-present) Donald Davidson Claude W.V. Jacques Lacan Jacques Derrida Gilles Michel Richard Hilary Levi-Strauss Deleuze Foucault Quine Rorty Putnam One major theme is the instability of the human sciences. Humans are exceedingly complex, and it is impossible to escape human structures so as to study them. Closely associated to American pragmatism. Advocates a detachment from objective truth with an emphasis on utility, convention, and social progress. WwW.SUPERSCHOLAR.ORG • • • • • • SIIJUJ SNJ03 LEGEND FOCUS SN30!

History of Philosophy

shared by merrillcook1 on Oct 02
A flow chart tracing the history of some of our greatest thinkers.


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