Transcript

The American Civil War

The American Civil VWar From Build-Up to Resolution The American Civil War (1861-1865), often referred to as The War Between the States, was fought over the ceding of the Confederate States. Eleven southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ("the Confederacy"); the other 25 states supported the federal government ("the Union"). After four years of warfare, mostly within the South, the Confederacy surrendered and slavery was abolished everywhere in the nation. THE BUILD UP Fugitive Slave Act Kansas-Nebraska Act Dred Scott vs. Sanford Lincoln-Douglas Debates Election of 1860 May 30, 1854 Territory split into Kansas and Nebraska. Popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free); Act was proposed by Stephen A. Douglas September 18, 1850 March 6, 1857 June-November, 1858 November 6, 1860 Court decision determined that Debate over the Senate seat for Illinois. Lincoln stated that the Runaway slaves could be caught in the North and be brought back to their masters. Since they were treated as property, running away was like stealing. Abraham Lincoln is elected as the President of the United States. Final straw for states slaves could not sue in federal courts, blacks are officially not considered citizens, slaves could country could not remain split over the issue of slavery. Doug- las is the victor. considering secession. not be taken from masters except by the law. 1850 1851 1854 1855 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 Compromise of 1850 September 1850 Harpers Ferry Raid October 16-18, 1859 Uncle Tom's Cabin "Bleeding" Kansas Lecompton Constitution Secession of South Carolina March 20, 1852 1854-1861 November 7, 1857 December 20, 1860 Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the novel depicted the evils of slavery such as splitting of families and physical abuse. Caused an increased participa- tion in the abolitionist move- South Carolina is the first state to secede from the Union. California admitted as free state. Territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico. Resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries,. Federal assumption of Texas debt. Slave trade abolished in DC. New fugitive slave law advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas. Border ruffians incite controversy in election on the issue of slavery. John Brown, an extreme aboli- tionist, and his sons slaughtered five men at Pottowamie Creek as Proslavery constitution in Kansas supported by Buchanan. Freesoilers were against it, and were successful in stopping it from being ratified. Denied statehood until after secession. John Brown aimed to create an armed slave rebellion and establish a black free state. Brown is executed and becomes a martyr in the North. a response to the election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Charles Sumner in Congress. ment. Condemned by South. Battle of Ft. .Sumter THE WAR April 12-14, 1861 First shots of the war were fired at Fort Sumter, South Carolina. Union forces surrender control of the fort. 1862 THE STATE OF THE (DIS)UNION: 1861-1865 Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 Lee attacks Maryland in hopes that he could take the border state from the Union. Washington Territory Emancipation Proclamation ME Highest number of casualties in a single day; remembered as the bloodiest day of the September 22, 1862 Issued by President Lincoln following Antietam which he felt was close enough to a Union victory to empower the declaration. It declared slaves in the Confederacy free (did not include border states). Symbolic gesture to support Union's moral cause in the war. Dakota Territory NH war. Battle ended in a stalemate. The Confed- 1863 OR VT eracy would never be so cdose to victory again. WI MA NY MI ст New York Draft Riots Nebraska Territory PA Nevade Territory IA July 13-16, 1863 Ütah Territory Он Drafting extremely hated by citizens in the North. Riots sparked by Irish-American tensions with the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned. IL IN Colorado Tarritory wv CA Battle of Gettysburg VA 1864 KN July 1-3, 1863 Lee invaded Pennsylvania. Battle with the highest casualty rate. Confederate Pickett's Charge was a disaster, forcing Lee to retreat. Union Gen. Meade does not pursue him. Last invasion of the North by the Confederacy. NC TN Indian Territory New Mexico Territory AK SC GA AL MS Union State Election of 1864 LA TX 1865 November 8, 1864 President Lincoln runs against former general George McClellan. Lincoln is re-elected president. Confederate State Surrender at Appomattox FL April 9, 1865 Lee is unprepared for the number of Union forces he is faced with, and is forced to surrender. A formal ceremony on April 12, 1865 marked the disbandment of the Army of Northern Virginia. Border State Sherman's March Union Territory November 15-December 21, 1864 Began in the captured city of Atlanta, GA and ended with the capturing of Savannah, GA. Sherman and his men inflicted serious damage Mason Dixon Line to the Southern infrastructure and civilian property. Destroyed much of the South's physical and psychological ability to wage war. SOLDIERS IN 1861 V. 2012 IMPORTANT FIGURES A collective three million soldiers fought in the Civil War; 2 million for the Union and 1 million for the Confederacy. Our soldiers from today are not that different from those who fought in the Civil War 150 years ago. Abraham Lincoln Jefferson Davis Average Civil War Soldier Average Modern Soldier 16th President of the United States from 1861 Served as the president of the Confederate States. Prior to this, he served as Secretary 5'8" 5'10" until his assassination in 1865. Led his country of War under President Pierce as the Senator 22-30 successfully through the Civil War; preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, and supporting Avg. Height 18-29 Avg. Height of Mississippi. Opposed secession initially. economic and financial modernization. Years old Years old 5' 5' Ulysseus S. Grant Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson 145 lbs. 155 lbs. 4' 4' Influential during the second half of the Civil War. The Union army defeated the Confederate military and effectively ended the war under his command with the Surrender at Appomattox. Later elected the 18th President of the United States. One of the best known commanders under Avg. weight Avg. weight Robert E. Lee. His death in May 1863 was a severe setback for the Confederate army in both strategy and morale. 3' 80% 3' 93% Were literate Graduated High School William T. Sherman Robert E. Lee Served as a general in the Union army from 1861-65. Received recognition for his military strategy as well as criticism for his "scorched earth" policies and the conduct- ing of total war on the South. Best known for leading the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Chose to follow his home state in secession despite his White (89.8%) White (75%) personal desire for the Union to stay intact, and offer from President Lincoln to com- African-American (10%) African-American (18%) Native American (.2%) Other Minorities (7%) mand the Union Army. THE AFTERMATH AMERICAN CASUALTIES BY WAR CAUSES OF UNION DEATHS Reconstruction The odds of surviving a battle wound during the Civil War was 7:1 Putting the Country Back Together 30.5% wWI 116,516 Revolution War of 1812 Civil War WWII Vietnam Afghanistan 1,893 Iraq Battle Reconstruction began during the war (and continued to 1877) in an effort to solve the issues caused by reunion, specifically the 25,000 20,000 625,000 405,399 58,209 4,484 69.4% Diarrhea claimed the Illness legal status of the 11 breakaway states, the Confederate leadership, and the freedmen. Northern leaders during the war agreed that victory would require more than the end of fighting. It had to encompass the two war goals: secession had to be repudiated and all forms of slavery had to be eliminated. Lincoln and the Radical highest number of Union soldiers' lives; it killed a reported 34,000. Total = 360,222 625,000 = 6,277,246 CIVIL WAR V. MODERN TRAGEDIES %3D Republicans disagreed sharply on the criteria for these goals. They also disagreed on the degree of federal control that should be (2% of 1860 Population) (2% of 2012 Population) OR Population of Tennessee imposed on the South, and the process by which Southern states Gettysburg 7,200 Dead should be reintegrated into the Union. These disputes became central to the political debates after the Confederacy collapsed. Antietam 5,750 Dead Sep. 11, 2001 2,996 Pearl Harbor 2,402 Dead

The American Civil War

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I designed this infographic as part of my Communication Design II class in the summer of 2012. The poster was intended to be used by students studying the American Civil War for the AP United States H...

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Brianna Sullivan

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