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The Adoption of Inclusion Education in the United States

*** THE ADOPTION OF ★★* INCLUSION EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES WHAT IS INCLUSION EDUCATION? "Inclusion is the full acceptance of all students, including those with significant disabilities as well as extremely gifted children, in order to create a sense of belonging within a classroom community and to prepare students for productive lives as full members of society." IMPORTANT LEGISLATION IN THE BATTLE FOR INCLUSION EDUCATION Peter M LSt a DUCATION OF the DSTRICT OF CO e Cv.A No scea August 1, 2 United States District Coun Di te 1972 1973 1975 Mills vs Board of Education Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Education for All The U.S. District Court ruled that the District Handicapped Children Act (ЕНА) of Columbia could not exclude disabled The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and children from the public schools. PARC vs Pennsylvania the Amendments of 1986 and 1992 The U.S. District Court Eastern District of guarantee the rights of individuals The EHA Act required all public Pennsylvania, struck down various state laws with disabilities in employment and in educational institutions that receive federal funding. schools accepting federal funds to used to exclude disabled children from the provide equal access to education public schools. Advocates cited these and one free meal a day for children decisions during public hearings that led with physical and mental disabilities. to the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. TEducati tht of IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Act No Child LEFT BEHIND 1990 1997 2004 Americans with Disabilities Reauthorization of IDEA Additional Reauthorization Act (ADA) of IDEA The ADA ensures that school-aged children This law ensures that children with with disabilities also are protected outside of school - including employment and access to disabilities have the right to more IDEA is aligned more closely a range of public and private services. than access to education - they with the No Child Left Behind Act of have the right to a quality education and quality 2001(NCLB), the primary legislation EHA Replaced With IDEA affecting general education in the United States, as well as expands The IDEA replaced the EHA Act in order outcomes. to place more focus on the individual, as opposed to a condition that an individual and clarifies many elements of the 1997 law. may have. WHAT HAS IDEA INTRODUCED? Effective assesment and teaching practices and related instructional materials for young National network of professionals dedicated to improving early intervention and preschool children and their families. education at the state and local levels. IDEA has supported the development, Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPS) to identify and meet the unique validation and needs of each infant and toddler with a widespread use of. disability and his or her family. State-of-the-art models of appropriate programs and services for young children with disabilities 0-5 Collaborating with other Federal, state Years Old and local agencies to avoid duplication (Birth - 5 years) and their families. of efforts in providing early intervention and preschool education. EXAMPLES OF IDEA ACCOMPLISHMENTS 14% increase in graduation rate High school graduation rates and employment rates among youth with disabilities have increased dramatically. For example, graduation rates increased by 14 percent from 1984 to 1997. Today, post-school employment rates for youth served under IDEA are twice those of older 1984 1997 adults with similar disabilities who did not have the benefit of IDEA. |IDEA It's a New NO IDEA The majority of children with disabilities are now being Post-secondary enrollments among individuals with educated in their neighborhood schools in regular disabilities receiving IDEA services have also sharply increased. For example, the percentage of college freshmen reporting disabilities has more than tripled since 1978. classrooms with their non-disabled peers. THE EVOLUTION OF INCLUSION Phase 1 Physical Integration In Public Schools Phase 2 SEGREGATION Students with disabilities were excluded from mainstream education Placing of someone who has been previously Social Integration In Public Schools excluded from the mainstream INCLUSION Academic involvement Phase 3 in regular classes in public schools PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS SERVED IN REGULAR CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT Percentage of students ages 6-21 served under the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), Part B, by amount of time spent in general classes from 1990-2010 % OF STUDENTS 100% 80% or more of time in general class 79-40% of time in general class 80% Less than 40% of time in general class 60% 40% 20% SCHOOL YEAR 1990-1991 1995-1996 1997-1998 1999-2000 2001-2002 2003-2004 2005-2006 2007-2008 2009-2010 % OF STUDENTS WHO SPEND OVER 79% OF THEIR TIME IN A REGULAR CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT BY DISABILITY Percentage distribution shows students 6 to 21 years old served under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part B, Fall 2008 % OF STUDENTS 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% DISABILITY 30.0% 16.2% 51.3% 13.2% 86.4% 61.6% 45.0% 53.3% 39.2% 61.8% 36.1% 60.9% 60.1% ELEMENTS THAT CAN HELP MAKE INCLUSION SUCCESSFUL Resources Materials Resources "Inclusion Education is a unified Qualified Access to Skills and Staff Specialists system of public education that Strategies Funding for Schools Involved Parents SCHOOL DISTRICT CLASSROOM incorporates all children and youth On-going Training Individual Education as active, fully participating members Trained Safety and Accessibility Teachers and Paraprofessionals Plans of the school community; that views diversity as the norm; and that ensures a high quality education for each student by providing INCLUSION Administrators and Staff Support Inclusive Opportunities Special Education Mandate EDUCATION meaningful curriculum, effective Curriculum teaching, and necessary SCHOOL that STATE supports for each student." Allocate Resources Supports Inclusion Parent Funding Training - Ferguson (1995) Involvement Support НОME Knowledge Communication REFERENCES: LEGISLATION: htp://;;; Ayalatimeline-of-relevant-events-in-special-education-mymas-version; | THE EVOLUTION : | GRAPHS & PERCENTAGES NCES: | A VISUAL RESENTATION OF INCLUSION: education-as-defined-and.html | ICONOGRAPHY Creative Commons; The Noun Project, Studio3.Org UNIVERSITY OF UNE NEW ENGLAND abilities Act DEAF-BLINDNESS O RTHOPEDIC IMPAIRMENTS OLTIPLSABILITIES INTEGRATION PEECH / LANGUAGE IMPEDIMENTS VISUALIMPAIRMENTS TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY O HEARING IMPAIRMENTS EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. DEVELOPMENTAL DE LAY SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRMENTS O

The Adoption of Inclusion Education in the United States

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Inclusion education has become a crucial part of classrooms across the United States, offering students with disabilities, as well as the gifted, an opportunity to join the classroom community and pre...


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