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10 Ways to Organize a Paper

THE 5-PARAGRAPH ESSAY THE TOULMIN METHOD THE ROGERIAN METHOD THE INVERTED PYRAMID THE HOURGLASS BENEFITS OF YOUR POSITIUN GROUNDS QUALIFIER CLAIM VALIDATIUN OF YOUR POSITION YOUR POSITION VALIDATIIN OF OPPOSITION WARRANT REBUTTAL OPPOSING VIEW PROBLEM BACKING WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS 1. INTRODUCE your topic and the central focus of your message. Then state three areas of analysis youl evaluate in relation to your argument. Similar to the inverted pyramid, the hourglass method covers essential information first: "who," "what," “when," "where," and "why." However, the writing then takes a turn and molds into a story where we learn just how everything played out. 1. STATE the problem or issue at hand. V For simple, argumentative essays that require little depth. V When writing a theoretical essay or academic paper. Establish a well thought-out claim (argument) by providing grounds, backing, and warrants; by addressing rebuttals with effective counter-arguments; and by using qualifiers. V For argumentative essays where there is a clear and valid opposing view that you disagree with but know many people support. The inverted pyramid suggests that the beginning or intro to what you are writing covers all essential information. Essential information typically refers to "who," "what," "where," "when," and "why." V For common news articles where an event or happening is reported. V For simple, argumentative essays that require little depth. V For brief opinion pieces, like an online editorial When making complex arguments that address controversy or clear opposing 2. EXPLAIN opposing views to your position about the topic (without explaining your actual position yet). With public service announcements where the readers need essential V For brief opinion pieces, like an online editorial. 2. EVALUATE or extrapolate your first area of analysis and address how it relates to your central argument. views for which substantial evidence information quickly. When you have little time to develop a thorough, well-researched argumentative or position paper. Claim: The position for which your are arguing; your main point or thesis statement. When you are hoping to maintain a respectful tone between you and the person or group or people that oppose your view. 3. VALIDATE the opposing view by pointing out what makes it a logical position to hold on the issue. When you have little time to develop a thorough, well-researched argumentative or position paper. against is required. When you anticipate others may not agree with your position and you must show compelling support in order to be persuasive. V When conveying simple information to coworkers or others about an upcoming event (company picnic, family reunion, etc.) The document then works backwards, putting the less and less information progressively towards the end. Less essential information typically includes details, quotes, statistics, background, and so forth, but without telling much of a story. 1. The Beginning: Provide the reader with the essential information: who did it, what they did, where they did it, when it happened, and why it happened. 3. EVALUATE or extrapolate your second area of analysis and address how it relates to your central argument. Grounds: Supporting evidence that gives strength to your claim. When you are willing to agree to disagree but you want to show why your opinion is, at the very least, a logical way of thinking. 4. STATE and explain your position and how it differs from the opposing view. When communicating a dangerous situation to those immediately affected. 4. EVALUATE or extrapolate your third area of analysis and address how ti relates to your central argument. Warrant: The chain of reasoning that connects your grounds to your claim. 5. VALIDATE your position on the issue by providing supporting evidence. 2. The Turn: Provide a transition statement 6. EXPLAIN the benefits of your position and why or how your position may be a better suited option than the opposing The goal with this writing style is to make sure that your audience gets everything they must absolutely have to make sense of the content early and quickly. Then, if they are interested or have time, they can that leads from what happened to how it happened, setting the reader up for a detailed story. Backing: Support or justification that backs up the warrant. 5. CONCLUDE by summarizing your central argument and your three main points about that message. 3. The Narrative: Provide the details of Rebuttal: Opposing arguments to your read the less essential details. view. what took place. Establish the context and what led up to the newsworthy claim. events. HOW TO ORGANIZE A PAPER Curtis Newbold | | 2018 TEN YOUR DOCUMENT FOR NEARLY ANY OCCASION WAYS TO STRUCTURE THE MARTINI GLASS THE PROPOSAL THE IMRAD FORMAT THE NARRATIVE THE INDIRECT METHOD BUFFER CHARACTER IMRAD RESOLUTION 1.1 REASUNS P F R P BAD NEWS CLOSING PLOT WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS WHEN TO USE IT HOW IT WORKS Similar to the hourglass strategy, the martini glass method covers essential information first: "who," "what," "where," "when," and "why" and transitions into a series of events. However, the events are typically lockstep and appeal only to certain readers, like those reading a summary of a sporting event. The article concludes with a kicker. v When pitching a new idea to a boss or funding organization in order to obtain approval or funding. V In research articles where you are describing what you learned in a research process. The indirect method works best V When recounting specific, chronological events that your targeted audience will care about. 1. Topic: State your topic and your purpose for writing the proposal. Narrative format doesn't have to go in the following order, but it must include the following parts: Prepare your reader for news they may not want to hear by setting up a buffer, providing reasons, stating the bad news, and closing politely. The IMRAD format is the traditional Narratives are effective communication scientific method for writing papers and refers to "Introduction," "Methods," "Results," "analysis," and "Discussion." devices in many settings. Use stories to do the following: for communicating bad news or information that your audience may resent you for if not presented well. 2. Paradigm: Describe the current state or understanding as your audience knows it. V When providing recommendations to a client or organization and your recommendations are grounded in research. 1. Character(s): Develop at least one character that can think or speak and that has a story about it to be told. 1. Buffer: State the best news possible, provide compliments, show appreciation, state things that your reader will agree with, provide hard-to-argue facts. The goal: get your audience comfortable and agreeable. When providing a recap of an event, especially sporting events. When submitting a book, television, show, play or other creative idea to a publisher or distributor. V Engage an audience with intrigue, 1. Introduction: Introduce the topic you researched and why. 3. Gap: Identify the gap in knowledge or practice as the current paradigm sees it. Show what is missing (this is essentially a problem statement). When bad news is likely to be personally upsetting (like in a layoff notice). Entertain your audience with events and characters they can relate to. When you want to be pithy or entertaining in the way you recount an event. 1. The Beginning: Provide the reader with the essential information: who, what, where, when, and why. V When writing a scholarly abstract for a publication or to present your work. (In an abstract, remove the forecast statement.) 2. Methods: Provide detailed description of the primary and secondary research you conducted. 2. Setting: Clarify where the story takes place. 2. Reasons: Give detailed reasons why a Establish something memorable (people remember stories better than rote information or data). When the bad news will likely provoke a hostile or angry reaction. difficult decision had to be made. Provide 4. Forecast: Forecast the organization of the proposal so that your reader knows exactly what to expect in the proposal. Then follow that order. 3. Results: Describe the results of your research methods, following the same order as your methods section. 3. Plot: Connect a series of events with a clear beginning, middle, and end. explanations, data, company policies, fairness, and serious intent. The goal: help your audience know the decision is a reasonable decision. 2. The Transition: Make a brief statement that leads from what happened to the events. Clarify a complex topic to an audience that is unfamiliar. V When bad news may seriously threaten a customer relationship. 5. Research: Provide detailed explanation of the research you will conduct to learn more about the problem/gap and the solution. 4. analysis: Analyze your results and provide explanations to your reader. (Considered optional) 4. Conflict: Establish a conflict or issue that needs to be resolved or addressed. The conflict should arise as the plot develops. VWhen the bad news is unexpected. 3. The Recap: Provide the step-by-step details in chronological order. Describe your accomplishments in a way that feels real and is something your reader can relate to, 3. Bad News: State the bad news, but cushion it with passive voice, positive highlights, and strategic positioning. 4. The Kicker. End with something interesting, funny, or punchy to leave your reader with something memorable. V When you hope to maintain a good relationship with the people to whom you are communicating and you need them to understand your reasoning. 5. Resolution: Describe a resolution to 6. Proposition: Propose something new, based on your research that fills the gap or solves the problem. 5. Discussion: Describe what needs to happen next, what you still don't know, or what recommendations you have. 4. Closing: Be positive, provide good wishes, and look toward the future. the conflict that was built out of the character's situation.

10 Ways to Organize a Paper

shared by TheVisualCommun... on Nov 15
There are many ways to organize a paper. Do you know the top ten most common?


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