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The evolution & impact of steel in Architecture

THE EVOLUTION & One of the most important EIMPACT OF, milestones in architecture was the development of construction methods in iron and steel. With STEEL these methods we have been able to construct stronger and taller structures, while using less materials like stone, brick, or IN ARCHITECTURE wood. The evolution of steel frame VARIOUS STRUCTURAL STEEL SHAPES construction in the 20th century entirely changed the concept of the wall and the support. Flanges Web BEAM The web resists shear forces while the flanges resist most of the bending moment experienced by the beam. Beam theory shows that the l-shaped section is a very efficient form for carrying both bending and shear loads in the plane of the web. HOW IT'S MADE O Here is an example of extracting steel from iron ore is with the use of the Blast Furnace. IRON ORE, COKE AND LIMESTONE HSS EXHAUST GASES EXHAUST GASES Hollow Structural Section is a type of metal profile with a hollow tubular cross section. Rectangular HSS are also called tube steel or structural tubing. They are commonly used in welded steel frames where members experience loading in multiple directions. 400°C STEEL LINED WITH HEAT- RESISTANT BRICK 1800°C CHANNEL [-shaped cross-section HOT AIR BLAST HOT AIR BLAST MOLTEN SLAG MOLTEN IRON ANGLE L-shaped cross-section TAP HOLE FOR IRON TAP HOLE FOR SLAG Most of the molten iron from a Blast Furnace is used PLATE to make steel. There isn't just one substance called steel - they are a family of alloys of iron with carbon or various metals. metal sheets thicker than 6 mm or 1/4 in TIMELINE AR Mill at Derby * Tracing the history of steel-framing from fireproofing mills in England to one of the preferred structural materials for the world's tallest buildings. Used wooden beams sheathed in iron to help fireproof the mill. EK Ditherington Flax Mill Designed by William Strutt Became known as the first fully integrated iron-framed building. 1793 1797 AR Orrell's Mill * This mill was designed by William Fairbairn and engineer Eaton Hodgkinson. It has hollow circular cross sections in it's cast iron columns. The new + scientific design lowered cost ~30% and placed new importance on engineering. E.V. Haughwout Building Cast-iron facades became popular + replaced masonry walls. This was designed by Daniel Badger, who became notorious for his cast-iron facades. 1834 יי000 מ 0 1840 |1970's Chicago Fire First Leiter Building This building, designed by William LeBaron Jenney, was made with load bearing beams and columns which allowed for large windows in between. Wainwright Building *Demolished in 1972 Located in St Louis Missouri, This was one of the 1st buildings to use all steel building frames in the U.S. 1879 Metropolitan Life Tower 1891 One of the 1st buildings to use a fully integrated system that was specially designed to withstand wind loads. Seagram Building Designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, the Seagram articulates the structure of buildings externally. Mies thought that a building's 1909 structural elements should be visible from the exterior. Since American building codes required that all structural steel be covered with concrete, Mies used non-structural bronze-toned I-beams to suggest the building's John Hancock Center · Bruce Graham used a Khan inspired trussed-tube bracing system in his design, which reduced materials 1958 structure instead. used by 30%. 1969 World Trade Center One of the most famous examples of Khan's framed tube system. Each tower has a hollow tube made of heavy steel box columns. These columns were welded to steel beams at each floor creating a stiff lattice-like structure. The shell carried wind load, while the core carried the majority of the remaining load. Sears Tower Designed by both Khan and Graham using the bundled-tube system. It remained the tallest building for over 20 years. 1972 1974 *Destroyed in 2001 After years of delay and controversy, reconstruction at the World Trade Center site is now well underway. Both One and Four World Trade Center are on track for completion and occupancy by 2013. CCTV Headquarters OMA designed the CCTV Headquarters with their focus on Iconographic constellation instead of on the hopeless race for the tallest building, The building uses a unique diagrid framing system, which helps with load transfer. This type of framing system is strong, requires less material, and allows for an open floor plan. In the face of a world- wide recession, China's economy has expand- ed an average of 10% each year for the past 30 years. In mid 2011 it was predicted that China, the world's top producer and con- sumer of steel, would experience a 25% in- crease in demand for steel by 2015, demand- ing around 750 million metric tons of steel. While the diagrid framing system can be made with timber or reinforced concrete, steel is the preferred material because of its high tensile + compressive strengths. This system essentially marries columns, diagonals, + bracings into one system. 2009- 2012 2012 * Graphics on marked do not represent the form of the actual projects IMPORTANT PEOPLE (1 Fazlur Khan Eaton Hodgkinson 1789-1861 1929-1982 Hodgkinson worked with Sir William Fairbairn in Manchester on the design of iron beams. His improved cross section was published by the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society in 1830 and influenced much nineteenth century structural engineering. Khan is a central figure behind the "Second Chicago School" of architecture, and is regarded as the "Father of tubular design for high-rises". Khan, "more than any other individual, ushered in a renaissance in skyscraper construction during the second half of the twentieth century." SOURCES:, www.structurae de, Wikipedia, Understanding the Worlds Greatest Structures: Science and Innovation from Antiquity to Modernity, Designed by Megan Jett

The evolution & impact of steel in Architecture

shared by archdaily on Jan 17
The evolution & impact of steel in Architecture



Megan Jett


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