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The Structure of the Internet

THE STRUCTURE OF THE INTERNET The Internet is arguably the most important advancement in human history. Billions use it, but few understand the structure that makes it all work. НOW DATA MOVES THROUGH THE INTERNET Data is split into bits called "packets". Each packet travels through the Internet via a series of checkpoints. ONE POSSIBLE JOURNEY OF A PACKET COULD BE: () ... TCP ...... MODEM (IP) DATA BROKEN INTO PACKETS APPLICATION ROUTER (TCP) LOCAL ISP LONG HAUL PROVIDER AEO- LONG HAUL PROVIDER LOCAL ISP OF DESTINATION LONG-HAUL PROVIDER OF DESTINATION ANY ADDITIONAL NETWORK EXCHANGES BORDER GATEWAY PROTOCOL LONG-HAUL PROVIDER ТСР MODEM (IP) ROUTER (TCP) PACKETS REASSEMBLED APPLICATION DESTINATION SERVER OR COMPUTER THE APPLICATION IS THE PROGRAM YOU'RE USING. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) DIRECTS YOUR PACKETS. INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) SENDS YOUR PACKETS. THE INTERNET'S DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM (DNS) DNS enables the use of domain names. There are hundreds of DNS servers that direct local and global traffic. They're split into 13 zone authorities, and some have multiple locations. DNS AUTHORITY HAME IP ADDRESSES OWHER NO OF LOCATIONS TYPE OF SERVERS IP VERSION, 2001:503:ba3e:2:30, 2001:500:84:b 2001:500:2::c, 2001:500:2d:d VeriSign, Inc. University of Southern California (ISI) Cogent Communications University of Maryland NASA (Ames Research Center) Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. US Department of Defense (NIC) US Army (Research Lab) Netnod 5 Global IPV6 Global Global IPV6 IPv6 IPV4 / IPv6 IPV4 IPV4 / IPV6 97 Global / Local 57 Global / Local, 2001:500:2f:f, 2001:500:1:53, 2001:7fe:53, 2001:503:c27:2:30 VeriSign. Inc., 2001:7fd:1, 2001:500:3:42 58 Global / Local 6 Global IPV4 2 Global IPV6 50 Global IPV4 / IPv6 IPV4 / IPv6 IPV4 / IPv6 104 Global / Local RIPE NCC ICANN WIDE Project 33 Global / Local 144 Global IPV4 / IPV6, 201:dc3:35 7 Global / Local IPV6 IP WITHOUT DNS, YOU'D HAVE TO USE A WEBSITE'S IP ADDRESS TO ACCESS IT. THE CABLES CONNECTING THE WORLD The Internet relies on 550,000+ miles of undersea cables to transfer information MAP OF WORLD INTERNET CABLES FOR SAKE OF SPACE, SOME CABLES ARE GROUPED TOGETHER WITH APPROXIMATE LOCATIONS. NOT EVERY INDIVIDUAL CABLE IS SHOWN. The US has 101 cables on its shores, twice as many as any other country. MAP OF US CABLES GUAM ALASKA WASHINGTON OREGON NEW MÁSSAGHUSETTS YORK RHODE ISLAND NEW JERSEY HAWAII CALIFORNIA BERMUDA FLORIDA PUERTO RICO AMERICAN SAMOA VIRGIN ISLANDS THESE CABLES CONNECT KEY DATA CENTERS THAT GUIDE INTERNET TRAFFIC. THESE DATA CENTERS ARE CALLED "INTERNET EXCHANGE POINTS". WORLD INTERNET EXCHANGE POINTS IEPS are network hubs that guide data packets to their intended destinations. THE 10 COUNTRIES WITH THE MOST IEPS CANADA RUSSIA 16 26 GERMANY POLAND 12 USA D12 FRANCE UKRAINE 75 O HONG KONG INDONESIA BRAZIL 30 IEP THE US HOUSES 75 IEPS, WHICH IS (AGAIN) MORE THAN DOUBLE ANY OTHER COUNTRY. LARGEST IEP GROUPS IN THE WORLD DEUTSCHER COMMERGIAL THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S INTERNET EXCHANGE ( DE-CIX ) 4859 2780 AMSTERDAM INTERNET EXCHANGE ( AMS-IX1 THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S 4242 2486 LONDON INTERNET THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S EXCHANGE I LINXI THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S 3305 2264 THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S MSK-IX I MSK-IXI 2099 1054 THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S DATA-IX I DATA-IXI 2045 300 INTERNET THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S EXCHANGE I IX.BRI BRAZIL THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S 966 1460 EQUINIX THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S EXCHANGE I EQUINIX I THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S 1409 990 GE-CIX THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S I G-CIX1 THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S 1340 830 MTERNET THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S EXCHANGE NEUTRAL THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S I NL-IXI 1021 619 NETNOD INTERNET EXCHANGE IN SWEDEN I NETNODI THROUGHPUT MAX GB/S THROUGHPUT AVERAGE GB/S 947 510 THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNET'S STRUCTURE Tech giants are currently experimenting with new ways to wirelessly improve the Internet's accessibility and speed. GOOGLE'S PROJECT LOON Google plans to launch solar-powered balloons into the stratosphere to provide Internet to rural areas and help people connect after disasters. ESTIMATED COST: "TENS OF THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS" PER BALLOOH ESTIMATED START:(CURRENTLY TESTING; SERVICE TBA FACEBOOK'S AQUILA DRONES Facebook plans to launch a fleet of solar-powered drones into the stratosphere to provide worldwide Internet service. ESTIMATED COST: UNDISCLOSED ESTIMATED START:CURRENTLY TESTING; SERVICE TBA SPACEX'S SATELLITES SpaceX plans to launch 4000 disposable satellites 750 miles into the atmosphere. SpaceX is owned by tech mogul Elon Musk and backed by Google and Fidelity. ESTIMATED COST: SI BILLION ESTIMATED START:2016 (TESTING) ONEWEB'S SATELLITES OneWeb plans to launch 600+ satellites that will beam high-speed Internet from 750 miles overhead. OneWeb is backed by a board of business moguls including Richard Branson of Virgin. ESTIMATED COST: S15 BILLION - $2 BILLION ESTIMATED START:2019 (SERVICE) AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION, CABLES AND WIRES CREATE MOST OF THE INTERNET'S PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE AROUND THE WORLD. SOURCES:| Webpage FX

The Structure of the Internet

shared by WebpageFX on Apr 28
The Internet is one of the most complex systems that the world has ever seen. Check out how it's physically laid out to make sure you can send, receive, and enjoy information from all over the world!




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