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Infographic about computers

industries Output Over the past few decades, computers have leapt from a humble mess A SUPERCOMPUTER IN YOUR POCKET of tapes and punch cards to technological marvels of unfathomable power. Moore's Law holds that the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles every two years. This law, which has held true for more than half a century, has driven technological and social change at a stunning pace. With this set to continue, what will the coming years bring? Are we on the brink of a technological revolution? The future is here user$ Supercomputers and Smartphones Take a look at your smartphone. The device you are holding is more powerful than the most advanced supercomputers of the early 1990s. But that's not the only incredible statistic... From A to B Gaming Today's TomTom Go GPS computer runs at 500 Mhz. This is approximately 244 times faster than NASA's Apollo Guidance Computer, which navigated to the moon in 1966 at just 2.048 Mhz. Sony's PlayStation 4 will debut with 1.84 teraflops of raw computing power, 150 times the power of IBM's 1997 chess-grandmaster-beating Deep Blue. TOMToma NASA's Apollo Guidance Computer TomTom Go Sony PlayStation 4 IBM GPS computer Deep Blue 500 1.84 2.048 7 0.01138 3 speed in Mhz speed in teraflops 20 Years Ago Stars in the Sky In 1993, the world's fastest supercomputer was the Connection Machine, running at 131 gigaflops. Today, the new record holder is China's Tianhe-2 - it runs at 54.9 petaflops, a 419,000 fold increase. To operate at one petaflop, a computer must perform 1 trillion calculations per second. For comparison, that's over twice as many calculations a second as there are stars in the Milky Way. 102 Tianhe-2 Connection One Stars in the computer Machine petaflop Milky Way 54.9 calculations 131 gigaflops 7 stars speed in petaflops number of Mission to Mars East vs West The iPhone 4 has four times as much processing power as NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover. The estimated peak performance of China's Tianhe-2 is 54.9 petaflops. This is nearly double that of America's fastest supercomputer, the Titan. Apple iPhone 4 NASA's Tianhe-2 Titan Curiosity Mars Rover computer computer 4x 2x 1x 1x processing power speed in petaflops Energy Costs It costs $10 million every year to run Japan's K' computer. This is the same as the annual cost of powering 10,000 average Your PC It would take 110,000 consumer PC's running simultaneously to simulate the 3 petaflops of Europe's fastest supercomputer, the SuperMUC. homes. Consumer SuperMUC computer K' Average home PC computer 110,000 1. 10,000 computers needed for 3 petaflops speed number of power-consuming units for the same cost One Musical Chip A single chip inside a musical birthday card contains more computing power than the entire Allied forces in WWII. Time Travelling iPad If the iPad 2 had been released in 1988, it would have been the most powerful computer in the world, and remained in the top 5 until 1994. AF The most powerful in 1988 Musical birthday card chip Allied Forces In the top five in 1994 in WWII computing power Apple iPad 2 Milestones For decades, scientists, engineers and programmers have been building upon the knowledge of their predecessors, breaking the barriers of processing power and delivering us feats of technological prowess. Here are some key milestones in their long journey. DMIPS The capabilities of these computers are given in DMIPS (Dhrystone Million Instructions Per Second), to give an approximate measure of performance. Now, imagine 1 DMIPS = 1 mile per hour... 1951 1964 CDC 6600 3 DMIPS 3 mph = a brisk walk UNIVAC 0.002 DMIPS 0.002 mph = speed of a common snail 1993 1999 Pentium intel. Pentium III intel. pentium 188 DMIPS 2,054 DMIPS 2,054 mph = Approx. max speed of Lockheed YF-12 jet 188 mph = Approx. max speed of a Porsche 911 pentium 2000 2005 Pentium 4 Extreme Edition Xbox 360 Xenon CPU intel. pentium 4 9,726 DMIPS 9,726 mph = Approx. speed of a PGM-19 Jupiter ballistic missile 19,200 DMIPS 19,200 mph = Faster than a space shuttle's re-entry to Earth E U.S. AIR FORCE Uritedstaten 2011 Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 177,730 DMIPS 177,730 mph = Approaching speed of a theoretical ion drive spacecraft Using this same measure, today's supercomputers would easily exceed the speed of light. (intel) Core" i7 Cost and Capabilities As processing power increases, consumer costs spiral downwards. With the rise of highly capable freeware and no-cost apps, processing power that was unthinkable three decades ago becomes something anyone can access. 60 cents ($7 adjusted) 140 character telegram from NYC to Chicago. Free $2M Video-editing suite in 1990. Free Instagram video today. 140 character tweet, reaches worldwide. $17M Cray 2 Supercomputer in 1985 1.9 gigaflops. 1,500 Number of 12" vinyl records needed to hold 350 hours of music. $300 iPhone 5 in 2013 Number of 32Gb iPod touches needed 27 gigaflops. to hold the same amount. $5580 $3,200 Nikon Nikon D1 camera in 1999, Cost to borrow the IBM 350 for one 2.7 megapixels. month in 1956. Held 3.75Mb. $400 Samsung Galaxy S3 in 2013, 8 megapixels. Free Google Drive in 2013, holds 15Gb (four thousand times bigger). Causes and Consequences What dictates this exponential growth of power, and what might the consequences be? From a new form of life to a breakdown of our understanding of reality, the future of computing represents an exciting unknown. 2.88 x 1017 An estimate for the number of calculations per second the human brain is capable of. If Moore's Law holds true, then by 2025 computers may have overcome the hardware barriers to a simulation of human thought. Lake Michigan and the Human Brain 2.88 x 1017 The number of calculations per second a brain is capable of. The number of fluid ounces in Lake Michigan is roughly the same as calculations per second of the human brain. If you were to start filling Lake Michigan drop by drop in 1940, doubling the number of drops every 18 months, you would have gotten nowhere by 2015. By 2021 you would be over a third of the way there. By 2025 you would be done. In computer science this is used to illustrate the timeline of Al creation. 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2021 2015 2025 Life in the Computer As processing power increases, our descendants will become capable of creating more and more powerful simulations. Eventually they will be able to digitally create artificial universes, teeming with life. Since these artificial 'humans' will outnumber real humans on a vast scale, it's a statistical certainty that we're in a simulation right now. If we're not, it means either Moore's Law will eventually fail, or our species will wipe itself out before we reach this milestone. Limits of the Law Where would Moore's Law end? Some predict in the next decade, when we reach the atomic limit - manufacturing transistors on an atomic scale. Others say it will hold true for at least 600 years, at which point we would reach the universal limit for the amount of information a physical system can process. Yet others think it will slow down and tail off, or even speed up – leading to a technological singularity. Breaking the Law Some argue that Moore's Law is unhealthy and should be broken: a directive that pushes the entire technology industry to chase speed and cheapness at the expense of functionality and sustainability. Then there is obsolescence: if computing power continues to grow exponentially, there will come a time when all technology is obsolete the second it appears. The Future When mass-produced transistors reach the atomic limit, engineers and scientists will need to find a new way to increase processing power. Welcome to the world of quantum computing... Ones and Zeros A False Dawn? The basic language of computers is binary, a string of 1s and Os. In a quantum computer, each bit is essentially capable of being both a 1 and a 0 simultaneously. This allows for extraordinary parallel computing The D-Wave One is the world's first commercial quantum computer... or is it? Some experts argue it is merely a good simulation of one. Either way, it recently reached a comparative speed of 1.5 petaflops, matching the world's tenth most powerful supercomputer. power. 373 K 5 Percent 20 millikelvin The temperature at which the D-Wave One operates - only fractionally warmer than absolute zero. The fraction of computer scientists who study quantum computing. They remain divided on whether a fully quantum computer is possible. 273 K OK $100,000 OB 2005 The amount offered by blogger and MIT professor Scott Aaronson to anyone who could prove that scalable quantum computing is "impossible in a physical world". To date, no one has claimed the prize. The date the first quantum "qubyte" was created in Austria. Did it mark the beginning of a brave new future? We'll have to wait and see. to a technological What will the future bring? Will Moore's singularity? What would be the philosophical and ethical consequences of such an event? With capabilities soaring and boundaries blurring, it is an exciting time to be on the technological frontier. Sources apple.com/uk/ipod-touch/specs.html bbc.co.uk/news/technology-22936989 bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/05/09/the-ipad-in-your-hand-as-fast-as-a-supercomputer-of-yore/ blog.mobineko.com/2011/03/21/vinyl-how-many-songs-per-side/ computerhistory.org/timeline/ digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/curiosity-mars-rover-5-surprising-facts/ economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/05/economist-explains-1o en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructions_per_second en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_hardware_2400_BC-1949 extremetech.com/extreme/144296-nasas-next-ion-drive-breaks-world-record-will-eventually-power-interplanetary-missions gizmag.com/d-wave-quantum-computer-supercomputer-ranking/27476/ guardian.co.uk/technology/2011/jun/21/japan-supercomputer-k guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/jun/18/ibm-sequoia-worlds-fastest-supercomputer ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_350.html imaging.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/d1/index.htm motherjones.com/media/2013/05/robots-artificial-intelligence-jobs-automation news.discovery.com/space/are-we-living-in-a-computer-simulation-2-121216.htm retro-gram.com/telegramhistory.html samsung.com/uk/consumer/mobile-devices/smartphones/android/GT-19300MBDBTU scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id%3Dclassical-computing-embraces-quantum-ideas slashgear.com/collapse-of-moores-law-in-about-10-years-30225268 spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/computing/hardware/why-im-wagering-100000-on-quantum-computing telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/8896196/Intel-teraflop-chip-matches-supercomputer-performance.html time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,997259,00.html top500.org/ universetoday.com/guide-to-space/milky-way/how-many-stars-are-in-the-milky-way/ vg247.com/2013/02/20/ps4-has-8gb-of-ram-almost-2-teraflops-of-computational-performance/ CC BY NC ND fonebank www.FLOYDWORK.COM D:Wave Irulol

Infographic about computers

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Infographics about computers from the past to the present ones.

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