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A History of Encryption

A HISTORY OF ENCRYPTION A walk through some of cryptology's greatest breakthroughs KLB/ ASFG |FXT O Transposition Ciphers 500BC - Rearrangement of position of letters within text – Spartan use of the Skytale O Caesar Cipher ABCD BCDE 50BC - Shifted letters by a fixed number in the alphabet O Frequency Analysis 800's - Analysis of the frequency of letters in cipher text, credited to Arab philosopher Al-Kindi abcd 500 BC OPABO O Polyalphabetic Cipher 1460's - Use of multiple alphabet substitutions per letter in a text, credited to Italian scholar Difficulty GH Leon Alberti JKL PP LB CODE ZCSA Jefferson Wheel 1780's - A polyalphabetic cipher using 26 cylinders with alphabets on a spindle, created by Thomas Jefferson Enigma Machine 1920's - Very sophisticated letter switching machine, created by Arthur Scherbius for the German Army 1 2010AD Cryptologic Bombe 000 1940 - Designed to crack the Enigma Machine's daily settings, created by Alan Turing and Gordon Welchman 000 O Data Encryption Standard 56 (DES 56) 1977 - Digital encryption standard published by the National Bureau of Standards • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 0101 1õ10 õiói 2001- Variants of either 128, 192, 256 bit digital encryption developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen chosen as the new standard by the National Institute of Standards and Technology WHAT IS A BIT? HOW LONG WOULD IT TAKE TO CRACK AN ENCRYPTION KEY OF 256 BIT (VIA BRUTE FORCE) ASSUMING: A bit is a basic unit of information in computing, often represented as either a O or 1. Encryption keys rely on the exponential function of bit length for security POSSIBLE FORMULA COMBINATIONS • 7 billion people on the planet • Every person on the planet owns 10 computers • Each computer can test 1 billion combinations per second KEY SIZE 1-Bit 2-Bit 4-Bit 8-Bit 16-Bit 32-Bit 64-Bit 2^1 2^2 2^4 2^8 2^16 2^32 2^64 2 16 256 IT WOULD ONLY TAKE THE EARTH'S POPULATION 77,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 YEARS TO CRACK IT! 65536 4294967296 1.84467E+19 HOW CAN I KEEP MYSELF SAFE? WHILE NOTHING IS 100% GUARANTEED, THERE ARE MANY STEPS WHEN SELECTING A PASSWORD TO STAY SAFE O Make sure all passwords are different 2 The more characters used the better 3 Use numbers, symbols and mixed-case letters 4 Do not use any common words or dates SPONSORED BY SOURCES EE TIMES - MONTICELLO.ORG - WIRED.COM - THE CODE BOOK: THE SCIENCE OF SECRECY FROM ANCIENT EGYPT TO QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY - CYPHER.COM.AU - A SHORT HISTORY OF CRYPTOGRAPHY - TRINITY COLLEGE Aol Computer Checkup. ©2013 AOL INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

A History of Encryption

shared by TeamAOL on Jul 10
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What makes a password secure? The concept of encryption (converting information into code) is not new. In fact, as you can see below, it started with the Spartans in 500 BC; they would rearrange the p...


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