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70 Years of Supercomputers

peeri Infographics Series hosting „ The Facts Behind Today's Leading Internet Technology VISUALIZING THE WORLD'S SUPERCOMPUTERS Supercomputers have come a long way from their origins in government work during World War II. Machines that qualify as supercomputers can now do millions more computations per second than researchers could have dreamed of during the 1940s. In the last 25 years alone, the speed and ability of supercomputers has increased by over a million times. HISTORICAL LOOK AT SUPERCOMPUTERS Pre-1920s Computers were regarded as human beings who performed calculations. Post-1920s O Post-1920s Computers became known as machines that performed many more calculations than a single human being could handle. Pre-1920s MOVING PARTS 111 ANALOG RELAYS VACUUM TUBES Electronically operated switches, used in the Physical movements of a machine represented computations, the way that lines on a map The digital circuit of its day, these featured no moving parts, so they worked faster than a relay switch system. 1930s and generally with the help of an electro- magnet, were used to physically influence computations. represent actual roads. Made the 1st supercomputers possible From the 194os to the 1960s, landmark machines from Colossus to ENIAC to Cray: Moved from specific-purpose machines to general-purpose ones with storage for instructions for multiple computations. Increased the number of vacuum and other tubes and therefore speed at which they worked. oIn the late 1960s and 1970s, supercomputers o began to utilize vector processing techniques: These techniques contributed to the design and usefulness of PCs sold to the general public in the 1980s and 1990s. This altered the way data was processed, and sped it up. THE EVOLUTION OF SUPERCOMPUTERS E Supercomputers and the tasks they complete have grown with the continuous leap in processing power during their development. OPS: OPERATIONS PER SECOND Over the course of the last 7 decades of development, processors have moved from measuring: THOUSANDS TO MILLIONS TO BILLIONS of operations per second. of floating point operations of floating point operations per second. per second. TO TRILLIONS TO QUADRILLIONS of floating point operations per second. of floating point operations per second. 1943 - 1955 1960 - 1976 1943 >> 5,000 OPS 1960 > 1.2 MFLOPS 1944 >> 100,000 OPS 1964 » 3 MFLOPS 1955 » 400,000 OPS 1969 » 36 MFLOPS 1974 >> 100 MFLOPS 1976 » 250 MFLOPS 1981 - 1990 1993 - 1999 1981 >» 400 MFLOPS 1993 » 143 GFLOPS 1983 » 941 MFLOPS 1994 » 170 GFLOPS 1984 »» 2.4 GFLOPS 1996 » 368 GFLOPS 1985 » 3.9 GFLOPS 1997 » 1.34 TFLOPS 1989 » 10 GFLOPS 1999 » 2.38 TFLOPS 1990 » 23.2 GFLOPS 2000 - 2011 2000 » 7.23 TFLOPSI 2002 » 35.86 TFLOPS 2004 » 70.7 TFLOPS 2005 » 280.6 TFLOPS 2007 » 478.2 TFLOPS 2008 » 1,1 PFLOPS 2009 >> 1.76 PFLOPS 2010 » 2.5 PFLOPS 2011 >» 8.2 PFLOPS SC Computers became "super" as multiple processors were linked together and multiple processes could be performed on the same sets of data. Increases in speed and shorter increments between these increases is attributed to improvements in actual processor technology. COMPARE THE TOP SUPERCOMPUTERS AROUND THE WORLD The blinding speed of modern supercomputers has allowed governments and private companies to develop a multitude of technologies on which to test innumerable theories. CURRENT TOP 5 COMPUTERS AND THEIR SPEEDS # 1 K COMPUTER Kobe, Japan 8 quadrillion processes (8.2 petaflops) TIANHE-1A JAGUAR Tianjin, China 2.6 petaflops Oak Ridge, TN 1.76 petaflops #4 NEBULAE TSUBAME 2.0 Shenzhen, China Tokyo, Japan 1.19 petaflops 1.27 petaflops The specific work of the top supercomputers in the world is often highly sensitive, if not secret. TOP SECRET Large Mechanical System Management Energy Research Nuclear Weapons Systems Military Defense Planning and Research HAMAZING ABILITIE S OF SUPERCOMPUTERS Supercomputers are doing ground-breaking work that might not be possible without them: Using a molecular dynamics simulation to study an organic chemical reaction that may have played a part in the development of RNA for early forms of life. Studying the evolutionary history of a family of enzymes that play a role in many human diseases and may lead to anti-cancer therapies. Simulate models of the galaxy to see how it has developed, how big it is, and how it could change in the future. WHERE VWE ARE GOING- The future of supercomputing holds more than just faster and faster processing speeds. BY 2018, supercomputers are expected to be able to process information on a level similar to the human brain. Around 2020, processing speed will cross into the exaflop category, or one quintillion operations per second, which is approximately 1,000 times as powerful as supercomputers today. Somewhere between 2025 and 2045, they are expected to develop self-awareness. With computing possibilities running up against the far edge of current technology, researchers are looking for new ways to shrink processors, combine their power, and gather enough energy to make them all work. These continued efforts may involve technology that has not been contemplated yet - much like the original supercomputers in the early 20th century. o SOURCES http://www.top500.0org DAOOOARODAO ADODADAA.

70 Years of Supercomputers

shared by Ariela on Aug 14
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Supercomputers date back to World War II, when they were used by the government, but they were agonizingly slow in comparison to today's machines. In the last 25 years alone, the speed and ability of ...


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