Transcript

Winged Wonders

Winged Wonders The ultimate guide to bats Bats represent approximately 20% of all classified mammals with around 1,240 separate species in almost every corner of the world. Bats are divided into two main subspecies: Megabats & Microbats Distinctions between species include size, diet and visual acuity. Longevity They are the longest living mammals of their size and Size have an average life span of 8 - 10 years. The Brandt's bat has an exceptionally long lifespan, around twice that of humans. Fruit bats are the largest suborder of bats and can measure up to 45cm in length. The largest can possess a wingspan of 1.7m (5.6 ft) and weigh up to 1.6 kg (3.5 lb). Wings A bat's wing membrane helps the bat regulate body temperature, gas exchange, water balance and blood pressure. Hibernation Echolocation ...................... During hibernation, bats lower their body temperature, heart rate and respiration rate. Beats per minute reduce from 880 in flight, to 18. A single breath is taken every 90 minutes. Claws Some bats echolocate at over 100db (1louder than a pneumatic drill) and contract the stapedius muscle in the middle Some bats posses specially enlarged claws on their hind feet to hunt their prey. Others hang upside down from branches to eat fruit. ear to avoid deafening themselves when flying. Anatomy Quick Facts Bats are truly unique mammals. Thanks to specialized physical attributes they have been able to adapt to changing surroundings since the early Eocene period roughly 60 million years ago. Echolocation Flying High Diet The scientific name Sonar & Hearing Flight Mechanisms Hunting & Foraging for bats, Chiroptera, comes from the I Most effective mammal 1Only mammals capable 1 Approximately 70% of bats are insect eaters. Greek 'cheir' at using echolocation. of true flight. meaning hand and 'pteron' meaning wing. Microbats use echolocation Bat wings are made from A bat's diet generally consists to navigate, often in total finger bones covered by thin of insects, fruit, darkness. This allows them layers of skin. The wing nectar, to forage for food and evade membranes of a bat make up blood. potential predators. Using its about 95% of its body surface ultrasonic call a detect size, speed, shape and movement of any object. flower and vertebrates bat can area. Average Hearing Range Humans: 20HZ - 20,000HZ Dogs: 40HZ - 60,000HZ Bats: 20HZ - 120,000HZ A poll by the TV channel Animal Three species of vampire bat exclusively consume blood as their diet, usually from mammals or birds. Planet listed vampire bats as the third-most feared animal on the The fastest flying bat is the Mexican free-tailed bat at planet, right after wolves and 32mph. They can fly up to 250 miles (402 km) in a single night and up to 10,000 feet (3,048m) high. gorillas and just ahead of piranhas. Insectivores can catch their prey mid-flight by scooping up the insect in its tail membrane like a bug net. emit echolocation signal through their mouth but a few bat Most bats their species use their nose. Using echo location, the Natterer's In the UK, noctule bats fly at bat can detect and identify 31mph. an insect in total darkness. Bat dropping is called guano and is an important fertilizer in many tropical regions because of its high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen. During the U.S. civil war, bat droppings Blind As A Bat? Responsive Flight Quenching Thirst ................ Some observed surface of the water with their Although some species have poor visual acuity due to small, poorly developed eyes, no species of bat is blind. When navigating over long distances, vision over echolocation. Bat wings are equipped with touch-sensitive receptors on the membrane surface that collect information about the surrounding air, allowing it to make adjustments and fly more effectively. bats have been skimming the jaw lowered to catch a drop or two. Other bats who have fur fly low then land to lick the water from their bodies. microbats were used to make use gunpowder! Around The World Thanks to their wings, bats are one of the most widely distributed mammals in the world. With the exception of the Arctic, Antarctic and surrounding isolated oceanic islands, bats are found in almost every habitat on Earth. Asia United States Bat Distribution The endangered Golden Capped fruit bat, found only in the Philippines, is one of the largest bats in the world with a .............................. The oldest known fossil, Icaronycteris index, was found near Yellowstone, Wyoming. It lived approx. 52 million years ago. wingspan of up to 1.7m. Australia United States United Kingdom The Ghost Bat, or 'False Vampire', is native to Australia. It gets its ................................. The largest bat colony There are around 1005 documented species of bat in the world, 18 of is located in Texas, USA, and consists of name from its white fur up to 100 million and thin membrane Mexican free-tailed these species are in the making it appear ghostly at night. bats. UK, Population Quick Facts Bats play a vital role within our ecosystem. From pollination and seed dispersal to pest control and replanting the rainforests, bats contribute considerably to the day to day running of our modern world. Ecological Role Family Life Conservation Impacting Our Ecosystem Reproduction Threats & Preservation The term "batty" was coined by another American, Al Kleberg, in his 1903 book, Slang Fables from Afar, in which he writes, "She acted so queer IBats are the world's best 1 Bats have one to three pest hunters. I Poaching, disease and habitat destruction. litters in a single season. A small colony of bats can eat Bats generally only have a over one ton of insects in one litter of one, which is born for 600 blind Bats are natural reservoirs zoonotic its including rabies and SARS. pathogens and million bugs! A single bat mother's milk. Horseshoe In the US, bats constitute can eat more than 600 bugs bats have an extra set of false around a quarter of rabies in one hour, the equivalent nipples near their groin for cases in wild animals. year, that's about suckles that he decided she of a human eating 20 pizzas! the baby bat to hang onto was Batty." when not feeding. DAI in the have Bats undergone serious declines and are fully protected by UK law under the Wildlife and Countryside Act. In Sarawak, Malaysia, bats are protected species due to consumption by the local communities. UK It is estimated that the pest In Tonga, the bat is considered sacred control services of bats in the US saves the agriculture industry $3.7 billion a year. and is often referred to as the physical manifestation of a soul. Bats can eat around 3000 mosquitoes a nursing mothers will double their body weight during a feeding bout. After just 5 weeks, young bats are able to fly and feed for themselves. night and In Britain, disused pillboxes from WWII converted to make roosts for bats. The thick walls and have been Some seeds will not sprout unless they have passed through the digestive tracts of a bat. damp environment mimic the walls of the caves where bats hibernate. Three US states have would otherwise official state bats. Texas and Oklahoma adopted the Mexican free-tailed bat in Saving The Rainforest Role Reversal Moving Home 1995 and 2006 The Fayak fruit bat is the only mammal where the male is Bats spread millions of seeds every year from the ripe fruit they eat. Approximately 95% of the re-forestation of the tropical rainforest is a result of seed dispersal from bats. Just as birdhouses encourage birds to nest, artificial bat roosts are becoming more popular worldwide. largest is at the University of Florida and has around 300,000 residents. respectively. In 2005 Virginia adopted the capable of producing milk. Conversely, some female bats The Townsend's sperm in the until fertilisation occurs in spring. can store big-eared bat. reproductive tract Vampire Bats Thanks to a mixture of media and mythology, Vampire bats have acquired a bad reputation, compounded by their love of dark spaces and of course, blood! However, there's a lot more to these misunderstood creatures than meets the eye. Adoption ............. Vampire bats get a bad press but are one of the only mammals to show true altruism. Vampire bats are the only known species of bat who will adopt another baby as its own in the absence of its natural mother. Eating Habits They do not 'suck blood' or have 'fangs'. In fact, they have tiny teeth that they use to cut away a small patch of skin, then lap using their tongue. If the animal has fur, the bat will use its razor Sharing Food ............ Vampire bats must feed regularly, usually on the blood of cows or birds, Medicine and they are known to regurgitate food if a fellow bat has gone without and needs a Saliva from vampire sharp incisor teeth to give the animal a haircut first! bats has been used in the development of new drugs to help stroke victims. meal. Sources Brought to you by thomson www.livescience.com/39013-bat-longevity-genes.html www.cdc.gov/rabies/location/usa/surveillance/human_rabies.html ecology www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-bats-echolocate-an/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bat www.batconservation.org/about-bats www.thomsonecology.com {{{{{<

Winged Wonders

shared by Lianne86 on Apr 16
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An informative infographic all about the wonderful world of bats from what they eat to where they live and the skills they possess, as well as other delightful facts.

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