World energy-related CO2 emissions by fuel and sector, 2011
---Trends by energy sector --------
The power and heat sector is the largest single source of energy sector CO2 emissions. It
produced over 13 Gt of CO2 in 20117 (Figure 1.15), more than 40% higher...
than in 2000.
Trends in CO2 emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity produced in a given country largely
refflect the nature of the power generation. Countries with a large share of renewables or
nuclear, such as Brazil, Canada, Norway and France have the lowest level. Of those regions
relying more heavily on fossil fuels, the large natural gas consumers, such as Europe and
Russia, have levels below the world average. Despite efforts in many countries to develop
more renewable energy, in global terms the power sector is still heavily reliant on coal,
accounting for nearly three-quarters of its emissions. Australia, China, India, Poland and
South Africa are examples of countries still heavily reliant on coal to produce electricity,
reflecting their resource endowment. In the United States, electricity generation from coal
has decreased 11% since 2000, coal consumption for power generation falling by 64 million
tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and yielding a decline in overall emissions from the power
sector of 0.8% per year on average CO2 emissions from transport, the largest end-use sector source, were just under 7 Gt
in 2011.8 Emissions from the sector, which is dominated by oil for road transport, have
increased by 1.7% per year on average since 2000, but with differing underlying regional
trends. OECD transport emissions are around 3.3 Gt: having declined to around year-2000
levels during the global recession, they have remained broadly that since. Market saturation
in some countries and increasing effciency and emissions standards appear to be curtailing
emissions growth. Non-OECD transport CO2 emissions have increased by more than 60%
since 2000, reaching 2.5 Gt in 2011, with increased vehicle ownership being a key driver.
Emissions in China and India have both grown strongly but, collectively, their emissions from
transport are still less than half those of the United States. More than 50 countries have
so far mandated or promoted biofuel blending to diminish oil use in transport. Emissions
from interntional aviation and marine bunkers are on a steady rise. They reached 1.1 Gt
in 2011, up from 0.8 Gt in 2000.
Having remained broadly stable at around 4 Gt for much of the 1980s and 1990s, CO2
emissions from industry have increased by 38% since the early 2000s, to reach 5.5 Gt. All
of the net increase has arisen in non-OECD countries, with China and India accounting
for some 80% of the growth in these countries. China now accounts for 60% of global
coal consumption in industry. Iron and steel industries account for about 30% of total CO2
emissions from the industrial sector.
Total energy-related CO2 emissions in the buildings sector (which includes residential and
services) reached 2.9 Gt in 2011, continuing the gradually increasing trend of the last
decade. Natural gas is the largest source of emissions " about 50% of the total " with the
OECD (mainly the United States and Europe) accounting for two-thirds of the total. Non-
OECD emissions from oil overtook those of the OECD, which are in decline, in 2011. Many
other changes in the buildings sector, such as increasing electricity demand for lighting,
cooking, appliances and cooling, are captured in changes in the power sector.