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TSUNAMI Very long gravity wave
Tsunamis are most caused by undersea earthquakes that shift parts of the seabed upwards or downwards
The height of waves at the place of origin ranges between 0.01 and 5m.
As waves approach the coast, the distance between the adjacent wave crests diminishes from 1,500km to 5km.
Near the coast, waves can reach 10 m in height, and in areas with intricate landscape (wedge-shaped bays, river, valleys, etc.) they can be more than 50 m high.
The entire mass of water begins to move during a tsunami. Getting its "foothold" on the coastal seabed, the wave, which has large kinetic energy, starts to roll and comes up high.
The most destructive tsunamis of the last 50 years
magnitude 9.5 6.9 8.1
22.05.1960 23.02.1969 16.08.1976
Chile Indonesia, Philippines
Number of victims 1,263 600 4,456
Max height of wave(m) 25 4 8.5
magnitude 7.7 7.8 7
12.12.1979 12.12.1992 17.07.1998
Columbia Indonesia, Papua
Flores Sea Nueva Guinea
Number of victims 600 2500 2,183
Max height of wave(m) 6 26.2 15
magnitude 9 7.7 8
26.12.2004 17.07.2006 27.02.2010
Indonesia Indonesia, Tsunami
Number of victims 227,898 664 528
Max height of wave(m) 50.9 10 11.2