Manganese is the 4th most traded metal in the world, mainly because it is indispensable in the production in steel and other alloys. In 2011, 14 million tonnes of manganese were produced worldwide.
2% of manganese produced is used to make manganese oxides, which have a far different end use: batteries. Manganese oxides are used in three types of batteries: alkaline, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, and disposable lithium batteries.
In rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, it is often used in the cathode - it has a high capacity, rapid power discharge, high energy density, and has a high cycle life.
LMDs (Lithiated manganese dioxide batteries) are being used in power tools as well as electric cars such as the Chevy Volt, Nissan Leaf, and Hyundai Sonata.
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