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AN OVERVIEW OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
You probably use computers and programs on a daily basis, but you might not be aware that the first "pre-computers" didn't even use electricity or that the first computer programmer was a woman. Computers have a huge impact on our life, and computer programs tell those computers what to do and how to do it. For both good and bad, computer programs have altered our existence, so it's about time you learned a little something about them.
In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard loom a mechanical, automated loom.
* Changeable punched cards controlled the operation of the loom.
* The punched card was later used by Charles Babbage as a method for storing programs for the Analytic Engine.
Jacuard Loom, 1801
FIRST COMPUTER PROGRAMMER: ADA LOVELACE.
Ada Lovelace, 1842
* In 1842 - 1843, Lovelace translated an article about Charles Babbage's proposed Analytic Engine. In her notes, she describes an algorithm that is cited as the first computer programmer.
* She also theorized that the computer could, one day, play music and chess.
* Ada, a U.S. Department of Defense computer language, is named in her honor.
IN 1889, HERMAN HOLLERITH DEVELOPED THE IDEA OF THE ELECTRIC TABULATING SYSTEM, A MACHINE THAT COULD READ DATA.
* Hollerith also used punched cards, known as Hollerith cards, after experimenting with paper tape.
* He also invented the tabulator and keypunch machines. Along with Hollerith cards, these form the basis for information processing.
* In 1986, he founded Tabulating Machine Company, which became IBM.
* In 1906, he developed a plugboard or control panel, that allowed the machine to perform different tasks without being reconstructed.
Electronic Tabulating System, 1906
Atanasoff-Berry Computer, 1942
Developed in 1937 and tested in 1942, the first electronic computer, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) was designed to solve linear equations.
Although it was not programmable, it did use binary arithmetic, regenerative memory, parallel processing, and separate memory.
Used in World War II, the Colossus machines were the first programmable electronic digital computers.
* The Colossus machines were designed to break and read encrypted German messages.
Hooper's "bug' documentation, 1947
In 1947, Grace murray Hopper, an admiral in the U.S. Navy and computer programming pioneer, documented the first actual computer 'bug' when a moth got trapped in the Mark II Aiken Relay Calculator.
* They removed the moth and 'debugged' the computer.
The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator, or EDSAC, was the first practical stored-program electronic computer.
* On May 6, 1949, EDSAC ran its first program: calculating a table of squares and a list of prime numbers.
FIRST HIGH LEVEL COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE USED: FORTRAN
* Invented by John Backus of IBM in 1954.
* It was released commercially in 1957.
* A high level of programming language is one that is far removed from the computer's instruction architecture. It is typically more user friendly than low level programming languages.
Fortran user manual
FIRST COMPUTER GAME: Spacewar! (1961)
* Programmed by Steve Russell, Spacewar! is a two-player game where two spaceships, affected by the gravity of a star, fire missiles, unaffected by the gravity, at each other. Each spaceship has limited ammunition and fuel.
* Took roughly 200 man-hours to complete.
* Written on a DEC interactive mini computer.
* Russell never profited from Spacewar!
Playing Spacewar! back in the day..
"If I hadn't done it, someone would've done something equally exciting, if not better, in the nxt six months. I just happened to get there first."
(Russell, about Spacewar!)
At Stanford University, Russel introduced Nolan Bushnell to Spacewar! Bushnell went on to program the first coin-operated arcade game and later started both Atari Computers and Chuck E. Cheese.
Spacewar! arcade game
FIRST COMPUTER VIRUS PROGRAMMER: FRED COHEN
In 1983, Fred Cohen designed a hidden program that could infect a computer, copy itself, and then infect other computers through the use of a floppy disk.
The program was benign, meant only to prove that it was possible.
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTERNET
1974 First use of the term "Internet' by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn.
1976 Invention of the Ethernet cable.
1981 National Science Foundation creates CSNET for those without access to ARPANET (Department of Defense network). Vinton Cerf recommends that CSNET and ARPANET should interconnect.
1983 Internet Activities Board (IAB) is created.
1990 Advanced Network and Services (ANS) is formed by Merit, IBM, and MCI to develop high speed networking.
1992 Internet Society is formed and World Wide Web is released.
1994 Pizza Hut offers online pizza ordering
First Virtual, a completely online bank, opens.
1999 Wireless internet access, Wi-Fi, is standardized.
HP-85A personal computer
32 K ROM
16 K RAM
monitor: 5 inches
weight: 20 lbs
intel Core i5
320 GB hard drive
monitor: 15.4 inches
weight: 5.6 pounds
In 2008, there were about 1.3 million software engineers and computer programmers employed in the U.S.
* They might potentially be outpaced by computer programmers in India, China, and other developing countries.
* More than 300 colleges and universities in the U.S. offer computer programming as a major.
* Countries with expanding technology sectors: India, China, Russia, Ukraine, and the Philippines.
COMPUTER PROGRAMMER SALARIES FROM AROUND THE WORLD
INDIA $3,351 - $9,714