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The History Of Computer Programming

AN OVERVIEW OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING



Computer Programmer

(probably)



You probably use computers and programs on a daily basis, but you might not be aware that the first "pre-computers" didn't even use electricity or that the first computer programmer was a woman. Computers have a huge impact on our life, and computer programs tell those computers what to do and how to do it. For both good and bad, computer programs have altered our existence, so it's about time you learned a little something about them.





In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard loom a mechanical, automated loom.

* Changeable punched cards controlled the operation of the loom.

* The punched card was later used by Charles Babbage as a method for storing programs for the Analytic Engine.



Jacuard Loom, 1801



FIRST COMPUTER PROGRAMMER: ADA LOVELACE.



Ada Lovelace, 1842



* In 1842 - 1843, Lovelace translated an article about Charles Babbage's proposed Analytic Engine. In her notes, she describes an algorithm that is cited as the first computer programmer.



* She also theorized that the computer could, one day, play music and chess.



* Ada, a U.S. Department of Defense computer language, is named in her honor.



IN 1889, HERMAN HOLLERITH DEVELOPED THE IDEA OF THE ELECTRIC TABULATING SYSTEM, A MACHINE THAT COULD READ DATA.



* Hollerith also used punched cards, known as Hollerith cards, after experimenting with paper tape.



* He also invented the tabulator and keypunch machines. Along with Hollerith cards, these form the basis for information processing.



* In 1986, he founded Tabulating Machine Company, which became IBM.



* In 1906, he developed a plugboard or control panel, that allowed the machine to perform different tasks without being reconstructed.



Electronic Tabulating System, 1906



Atanasoff-Berry Computer, 1942



Developed in 1937 and tested in 1942, the first electronic computer, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) was designed to solve linear equations.



Although it was not programmable, it did use binary arithmetic, regenerative memory, parallel processing, and separate memory.



Used in World War II, the Colossus machines were the first programmable electronic digital computers.



* The Colossus machines were designed to break and read encrypted German messages.



Colossus Machine



Hooper's "bug' documentation, 1947



In 1947, Grace murray Hopper, an admiral in the U.S. Navy and computer programming pioneer, documented the first actual computer 'bug' when a moth got trapped in the Mark II Aiken Relay Calculator.



* They removed the moth and 'debugged' the computer.



The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator, or EDSAC, was the first practical stored-program electronic computer.



* On May 6, 1949, EDSAC ran its first program: calculating a table of squares and a list of prime numbers.



EDSAC, 1949



FIRST HIGH LEVEL COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE USED: FORTRAN



Backus, 1954



* Invented by John Backus of IBM in 1954.



* It was released commercially in 1957.



* A high level of programming language is one that is far removed from the computer's instruction architecture. It is typically more user friendly than low level programming languages.



Fortran user manual



FIRST COMPUTER GAME: Spacewar! (1961)



* Programmed by Steve Russell, Spacewar! is a two-player game where two spaceships, affected by the gravity of a star, fire missiles, unaffected by the gravity, at each other. Each spaceship has limited ammunition and fuel.



* Took roughly 200 man-hours to complete.



* Written on a DEC interactive mini computer.



* Russell never profited from Spacewar!



Playing Spacewar! back in the day..



Steve Russell

"If I hadn't done it, someone would've done something equally exciting, if not better, in the nxt six months. I just happened to get there first."

(Russell, about Spacewar!)



At Stanford University, Russel introduced Nolan Bushnell to Spacewar! Bushnell went on to program the first coin-operated arcade game and later started both Atari Computers and Chuck E. Cheese.



Spacewar! arcade game



FIRST COMPUTER VIRUS PROGRAMMER: FRED COHEN



In 1983, Fred Cohen designed a hidden program that could infect a computer, copy itself, and then infect other computers through the use of a floppy disk.



The program was benign, meant only to prove that it was possible.



Cohen, 1983



BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTERNET



1974 First use of the term "Internet' by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn.



1976 Invention of the Ethernet cable.



1981 National Science Foundation creates CSNET for those without access to ARPANET (Department of Defense network). Vinton Cerf recommends that CSNET and ARPANET should interconnect.



1983 Internet Activities Board (IAB) is created.



1990 Advanced Network and Services (ANS) is formed by Merit, IBM, and MCI to develop high speed networking.



1992 Internet Society is formed and World Wide Web is released.



1994 Pizza Hut offers online pizza ordering

First Virtual, a completely online bank, opens.



1999 Wireless internet access, Wi-Fi, is standardized.



HP-85A personal computer

(1980)



self-contained portable

8-bit microprocessor

CRT screen

32 K ROM

16 K RAM

monitor: 5 inches

weight: 20 lbs



$3,250

($8,352.42 TODAY)



MacBook Pro

(2.4 GHz)



intel Core i5

4GB memory

320 GB hard drive

monitor: 15.4 inches

weight: 5.6 pounds



In 2008, there were about 1.3 million software engineers and computer programmers employed in the U.S.



* They might potentially be outpaced by computer programmers in India, China, and other developing countries.



* More than 300 colleges and universities in the U.S. offer computer programming as a major.



* Countries with expanding technology sectors: India, China, Russia, Ukraine, and the Philippines.



COMPUTER PROGRAMMER SALARIES FROM AROUND THE WORLD



USA $60,000



RUSSIA $21,895



CHINA $21,046



UKRAINE $17,569



PHILLIPPINES $10,734



INDIA $3,351 - $9,714

The History Of Computer Programming

shared by maggie on Apr 18, 2011 in Technology

The History Of Computer Programming

shared by maggie on Apr 18, 2011 in Technology

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An infograph which is useful to cover up the basics of history behind coding, and for knowing a little tidbits of facts, which might come useful to impress your non-Geeky friends as well.
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