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CO2 emissions locked-in by energy infrastructure in place and under construction by region and sector.
The share of locked-in emissions from transport (9%) and buildings (6%) is lower, as the bulk of the energy-consuming infrastructure in these sectors typically does not remain operational for more tha... n around fithteen years. In the United States, the transport sector has a relatively high share (18%) of total locked-in emissions, since transport is responsible for a relatively high proportion of overall energy-related CO2 emissions. Buildings account for 15% of locked-in emissions in the European Union, the highest share of all regions, due to the importance of space heating in Europe's energy systems. Another 6% of locked-in emissions results from other forms of energy transformation (mainly reffineries, and oil and gas extraction), 4% from non-energy use (mainly petrochemical feedstock and lubricants) and 1% from agriculture (including field machinery). In non-OECD countries, infrastructure that exists or is under construction locks-in 360 Gt CO2 from 2011 to 2035, led by China, India, the Middle East and Russia, while, in OECD countries, the figure is 195 Gt CO2, led by the United States and the European Union (Figure 3.6). The outlook in non-OECD countries is mainly a consequence of the infrastructure expansion that has taken place over the past decade and the amount that is currently under construction. However, the extent of the continuing rapid expansion of energy infrastructure in non-OECD countries presents an important window of opportunity to avoid further lock-in of emissions by adopting efficient, low-carbon installations. The challenge and opportunity for OECD countries lies, rather, with the replacement strategy adopted for the large amount of ageing fossil-fuel based infrastructure that could be retired, or its use lowered, over the next few decades.---- Note: Other includes energy transformation, non-energy-use and agriculture
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