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Change in production-based and demand-based CO2 emissions - 1995- 2005
---- Other gases ----- Methane is the second largest contributor to human-induced global warming, and is 25 times more potent than CO2 over a 100-year period. Methane emissions contribute to over one... -third of today’s humaninduced warming. As a short-lived climate forcer, limiting methane emissions will be a critical strategy for reducing the near-term rate of global warming and avoiding exceeding climatic tipping points (see below). Methane is emitted from both anthropogenic and natural sources; over 50% of global methane emissions are from human activities --------Nitrous oxide (N2O) lasts a long time in the atmosphere (approximately 120 years) and has powerful heat trapping effects – about 310 times more powerful than CO2. It therefore has a large global warming potential. Around 40% of N2O emissions are anthropogenic, and come mainly from soil management, mobile and stationary combustion of fossil fuel, adipic acid production (used in the production of nylon), and nitric acid production (for fertilisers and the mining industry). , such as fossil fuel production, animal husbandry (enteric fermentation in livestock and manure management), rice cultivation, biomass burning and waste management. Natural sources of methane include wetlands, gas hydrates, permafrost, termites, oceans, freshwater bodies, nonwetland soils, and other sources such as wildfires.------- CFCs and HCFCs are powerful GHGs that are purely man-made and used in a variety of applications. As they also deplete the ozone layer, they have been progressively phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer. HFCs and PFCs are being used as replacements for CFCs. While their contribution to global warming is still relatively small, it is growing rapidly. They are produced from chemical processes involved in the production of metals, refrigeration, foam blowing and semiconductor manufacturing.
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