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Body Changes During Pregnancy

B O D Y C H A N G E S



D U R I N G P R E G N A N C Y





A pregnant woman's body undergoes various normal physical changes

that can be obvious or quite subtle. These changes are necessary to assist

fetal development and prepare the body for labor.





R E S P I R A T O R Y S Y S T E M C A R D I O V A S C U L A R S Y S T E M





G A S T R O I N T E S T I N A L S Y S T E M B R E A S T S





E N D O C R I N E S Y S T E M A B D O M E N





U R I N A R Y S Y S T E M M U S C U L O S K E L E T A L S Y S T E M





S K I N O T H E R C H A N G E S







R E S P I R A T O R Y S Y S T E M C H A N G E S



The respiratory rate rises to compensate for increased maternal oxygen consumption,

which is needed for demands of the uterus, the placenta, and the fetus



. Increased respiratory rate . Decreased functional capacity



. Increased minute ventilation . Increased tidal volume



. Respiratory alkalosis . Pregnant women may feel out of breath





C A R D I O V A S C U L A R S Y S T E M C H A N G E S





During pregnancy, the entire cardiovascular system is readjusted, blood volume

increases greatly, more blood vessels grow, and the pressure of the expanding

uterus on large veins causes the blood to slow i its return to the heart.



. Increased cardiac output . Decreased peripheral resistance



. Increased blood volume . Decreased blood pressure

(second trimester)

. Elevated resting heart rate





G A S T R O I N T E S T I N A L S Y S T E M C H A N G E S



As the uterus enlarges, it rises up and out

of the pelvic cavity. This action displaces

the stomach, intestines, and other

adjacent organs.

Stomach



Intestine Progesterone causes relaxation of the

lower esophageal sphincter.



+ = . Decreased gastric motility/constipation



. Increased reflux



. Heartburn





C H A N G E S O F T H E B R E A S T S



. Breasts may become larger and more tender because Breast Anatomy

of increased levels of the hormones estrogen and Pectoralis minor muscle

progesterone. As the due date approaches, hormone Pectoralis major muscle

changes will cause pregnant women's breasts to get Subcutaneous fat pad

even bigger to prepare for breastfeeding. Pectoral fat pad

Areola

Nipple

. Nipples may stick out more. Lactiferous sinus

Lobes of the mammary gland

Rib

. By the third trimester, colostrum, a yellow, watery Chest wall

pre-milk, may leak from the nipples.





E N D O C R I N E S Y S T E M C H A N G E S





Hormonal changes readjust the entire body system.

Pineal

Hypothalam . The placenta acts as a temporary endocrine gland during pregnancy. It produces

Pituitary large amounts of estrogen and progesterone by the 10th to 12th week of pregnancy.

It serves to maintain the growth of the uterus, helps to control uterine activity,

Thyroid and is responsible for many of the maternal changes in the body.

Parathyroid

. Pregnant women may feel warmer . Near the end of term, the posterior

Thymus or experience "hot flashes" caused pituitary will begin to secrete oxytocin

by increased hormonal levels and that will serve to initiate labor.

basal metabolic rate.

Adrenals

Pancreas . The parathyroid gland increases in . At birth, the anterior pituitary will begin

size slightly to meet the increased to secrete prolactin. This stimulates

Placenta requirements for calcium. the production of breast milk.

Ovaries





A B D O M E N C H A N G E S





During the second trimester the abdomen begins to expand and by the

end of this trimester, the top of the uterus will be near the rib cage. 9th month

8th month

A pregnant woman's abdomen may ache on one side or the other, as the 7th month

abdominal wall and the ligaments that support the uterus are stretched. 6th month

5th month

Skin Subcutaneous fat 4th month

3rd month

Cross Section

of the

Abdominal Wall

Abdominal Peritoneum Abdominal

tendons muscles





U R I N A R Y S Y S T E M C H A N G E S





. The expanding uterus puts pressure on the bladder, urethra,

and pelvic floor muscles, which leads to temporary bladder

Bladder control problems like frequent urination and even leaking of

Kidney Internal urethral sphincter urine when sneezing, coughing, or laughing.

External urethral sphincter

Urethra . The kidneys must work extra hard excreting the mother's

and the fetus waste products. The kidneys must work extra

hard to excrete the waste products of both mother and fetus.





M U S C U L O S K E L E T A L S Y S T E M C H A N G E S





There is a realignment of the spinal curvatures to maintain

balance; this produces a shift in the posture with exaggerated

lumbar lordosos, leading to the typical gait of late pregnancy.



Increased ligamental laxity, caused by increased levels of relaxin,

contribute to back pain and pubic symphysis dysfunction. The

ligaments that hold the pelvic bones together gradually loosen

to prepare the mother for labor and birth. Pelvis





S K I N C H A N G E S





Human Skin Diagram



Hair



Epidermis



Dermis Stretch marks (Striae Hyperpigmentation of Hyperdynamic

gravidarum) usually appear in the umbilicus, nipples, circulation and high

Subcutaneous the second half of pregnancy abdominal midline (linea levels of estrogen

Tissue on the thighs, buttocks, nigra), and face may cause spider

abdomen, and breasts. These (chloasma) are common veins (spider naevi)

scars are caused by the due to the hormonal and reddening of

stretching of the skin changes of pregnancy. the palms (palmar

erythema).





O T H E R C O M M O N C H A N G E S





Hormone changes make many Feet and ankles may

women experience changes in No curve swell because of the

hair and nail texture and extra fluid in the body

growth during pregnancy. during pregnancy

Normal ankle Swollen ankle



Leg cramps can be caused by fatique

from carrying pregnancy weight,

compression of the blood vessels in the

legs, excess phosphorous, a shortage A slight increase in body temperature in early

of calcium or magnesium, and pregnancy is noted. The temperature returns to

fluctuation of pregnancy hormones. normal at about the 16th week of gestation.





Changes in Body Weight



0 to 15 weeks 16 to 27 weeks 28 to 40 weeks Total weight gain 25-35 pounds (12 to 17 kg)



2-3 pounds 16-17 pounds 25-35 pounds

(1-1.5 kg) 7.5 kg (12 to 17 kg) Fetus and support tissues/fluids



Baby 6-8 pounds (3 to 4 kg)

Placenta 1-2 pounds (0.5 to 1 kg)

Uterus 1-2 pounds (0.5 to 1 kg)

Amniotic Fluid 2-3 pounds (1 to 1.5 kg)



Maternal fluids and storage

Breast 1-2 pounds (0.5 to 1 kg)

Blood 3-4 pounds (1.5 to 2 kg)

Protein & Fat 8-10 pounds (4 to 5 kg)

Body Fluids 3-4 pounds (1.5 to 2 kg)

Body Changes During Pregnancy

shared by Healthline on Jan 03, 2013 in Health

Body Changes During Pregnancy

shared by Healthline on Jan 03, 2013 in Health

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This infographic covers all of the changes that take place throughout the body during pregnancy.
Rank: 34 of 8359 in Health

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Healthline

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Cristina gambaccini

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